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General questions?

1) What is a text?
2) What do we mean by the words coherence and cohesion?
3) Which kind of texts can we have?
4) Which are the main features of a text?
5) Which are the main features of a scientific text?
6) What is a "topic sentence"? (main concept)
7) What are "linkers" or "connectors"? They are grammatical words that signal the logical relationships within a sentence and between sentences and paragraphs.
8) Make an example of linkers for "Addition", "Result", "Time Sequence", "Purpose", "Concession", and so on.
9) How would you define the kind of education you receive at school ? (Excellent, Good, Unsatisfactory, Very bad).
10) What is the cause of your answer? (Inadequate teaching methods, Uninteresting subjects, Too much discipline, Too many students in a single classroom, Other reasons).
11) Do you think the subjects you are studying, or you have studied are - or will be - of some use to understand the world in which you live or to find a job?
12) At the end of the secondary school, are you planning to...a) go to the university? b) look for a job?
13) Should anyone who wants to go to the university be allowed to?

MONEY, MATTERS AND COMMERCE   (Include the ten golden trading rules)

Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Economics aims to explain how economies work and how economic agents interact. Economic analysis is applied throughout society, in business, finance and government, but also in crime, education, the family, health, law, politics, religion, social institutions, sex, war, and science.

Economy - the system of production and distribution and consumption. The efficient use of resources; "economy of effort". Types of economy. Planned economy, Free market economy Mixed economy. In the first type the government or state makes decisions about what will be produced, how it will be produced and in what quantities, at what price it will be sold and who will benefit from the sale of the products and services. Several countries in Eastern Europe followed this model in the past. The second type is also known as the “capitalist system”. The main decisions about production and prices are established by the economics of supply and demand. Consumers choose who to buy from and how much they are willing to pay for a product or a service. Japan and USA are example of this type. Mixed type is the economy that combines elements of both free market and planned economy. Private companies are free to compete for most goods and services, but the government provides other services, such as public transport, education and health care. Italy, France, U.K. and Germany are example of mixed economy.

The first Law of Economics: the only thing more dangerous than an economist is an amateur economist. The second Law of Economics: the only thing more dangerous than an amateur economist is a professional economist!

The four factors of production: Natural resources, Labour, Capital and Entrepreneurship. In developing countries mining and farming provide most of the jobs for the working population. As countries like India and China become richer, industries grow up and people move from the countryside into the cities to find work in the secondary sector. Richer countries, like Japan and those in Europe and North America, employ most people in their service industries.
Three things are needed to make the economy of a country work: land, labour and capital, which are exploited by various enterprises to provide products and services. The three sectors of production: primary sector: farming, mining, fishing, forestry. The secondary sector processes the raw material from the primary sector. This means that they take the raw materials and transform them into goods and products. It includes manufacturing and construction. (food and beverage, textile, car industry, building). The tertiary sector involves the provision of services to final consumers and businesses. Types of industries in the tertiary sector are: retailing, the sale of goods from a store; banking and insurance; education.

Commerce is a general term used to describe the sale and distribution of goods and services. The commercial activity of buying and selling goods and services is called “trade”. Trade is divided into home trade, when goods and services are sold and bought inside a country, and foreign trade, when this commercial exchange happens between two different countries. In foreign trade we distinguish between import, when goods or services are bought from a foreign seller, and export, when goods or services are sold to a foreign buyer. Another aspect of commerce refers to the services which make trade possible, for example: banking, insurance, transport and marketing.

Trade - The business of buying and selling commodities; commerce.

Stages of a sales transaction

The basics of importing and exporting are not different from the essential principles of buying and selling on a single market. Business transactions usually go through a series of steps that bring buyer and seller closer together until the deal is finalised and completed.
Stage 1 The Enquiry. The buyer requests general information and a quotation. The voluntary offer. The seller offers goods to potential buyers. The unsolicited offers and spam. Stage 2 The reply to the enquiry. The seller provides information and quotes prices. The follow-up letter. The buyer requests further information and a quotation.
Stage 3 The Order The buyer places the order. Stage 4 The confirmation and execution of the order. The seller agrees to fulfil the order and arranges for delivery. Stage 5 The payment. The buyer pays for the goods.

1. Introduction to business communication.

Personal phone calls. Business phone calls. Layout of a business letter. Faxes. Emails.
The supplier and the prospective customer …. Get in touch in order to do business.
Documents: business letters, faxes, and emails.
Keywords: addressee, person a letter, etc, is addressed to.
Layout: the way the parts of the letter are arranged.
Letterhead: name and address printed at the top of writing paper.
Written communication in business is increasingly done via email and certified emails and, to a lesser extent, by fax. Letters are still used, however, when sending documents like contracts, etc, which need signatures, or to accompany some parcels, or catalogues, etc.

Business letters are laid out following a standard sequence. You usually include the following elements:
Letterhead - References (Our Ref……/Your Ref…..) – Date - Addressee - Attention Line (The import Manager/ Mister….) – Salutation (Dear Sir/Madam etc.) – Subject Line (Your promotional offer) – Body of the letter – Closing greeting (Yours faithfully) – Signature – Enclosures (Enc: 1 list of articles).

Writing an email. Some elements that you need to write in a letter are automatically provided by the email system. For example, you don’t need to write the date and your internet address. You should always write the subject of your message to signal to your addressee what the message is about. An email body text usually tends to be direct and to the point. As a general rule, avoid unnecessary information and wordy sentences. If you wish to provide more information or data attach a file. In general the register of the language tends to be more informal than in a business letter, so you can safely use abbreviations, acronyms and linguistic devices that speed up reading, and consequently, action. But caution: avoid excessively colloquial expression.

Fax machine have been replaced by new technologies such as text messages and e-mails. Traditional business letters have been substituted by e-mails. Text messages are not called sms in North America and the UK . The term “text messaging” is preferred. E-mails are a quick and simple way to send messages. E-mails can be sent and received at any time of the day and you can receive immediate feedback. Fax are still used because electronic signatures on contracts are not always recognized by law if you use emails, while faxed contracts with copies of signatures are. Nowadays, however we have the certified e-mail, and so the problem doesn’t exist any longer.
Telephone communications are very useful and employed because they allow people to communicate on the move and do business from any location. Nowadays, however, with the development of wireless internet connections and mobile phones you can use your smartphone or Ipad or netbook wherever you are as well.
2. Offers and replies
Telemarketing. Unsolicited offers and spam. Replies.
The supplier….sends informative material, either unsolicited or on request. The prospective customer…examines the material and responds. Documents: catalogues, price lists, brochures. Keywords: discount, that is a reduced price; junk mail: advertising material sent to people who have not requested it; quotation: a written statement of how much something will cost; spam: advertising material sent by email to people who have not requested it; telemarketing: is the telephonic equivalent of unsolicited offers and spam. It can be used to get new customers or to encourage old ones to continue or to increase the number of services they use. It tends to gain the listener’s attention, giving the main message and encouraging the listener to take action, that is to buy.
3. Making and responding to enquiries
Enquiries on the telephone. Enquiries in writing. Internet enquiries. Responding to enquiries.
The prospective customer…….phones or writes to ask for information or material. The supplier….responds as requested. Documents: catalogues, price lists, brochures, etc. Keywords: delivery: the act or process of taking things to their destination; payment: amount of money that has been or must be paid; samples: small amounts of a product for potential customers to evaluate; terms and conditions: how and when things will be delivered or paid for, how much it will cost.
If you need information about something, you can make an enquiry by phone or in writing. Many people prefer the phone as it is often quicker and means that you can ask follow-up questions if the answer you receive is not completely clear or does not tell you everything you need to know. In internet most websites have a FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) section, but for those users who need more specific information there is usually an email address or an enquiry section with an online form to fill in.
When you reply to enquiries you should not only try to answer your prospective customers’ questions, but also mention any other information that may induce them to place orders. When you receive a lot of requests for generic information you may send off whatever is requested (catalogues, proce lists, etc.). Most enquiries, however, ask about prices and terms. You can give prices in two ways: supplying a price list, i.e. a list of your products and the price for each, valid for all customers up to the expiry of the list. This can be an enclosure in a letter or an attachment to an email; or making up a quotation, i.e. a price that you give a customer after evaluating the various aspects of that specific transaction. A quotation may refer just to the cost of goods or may include other costs, such as freight and insurance. A set of internationally recognized rules called INCOTERMS governs the composition of the price given in a quotation. Terms usually cover how things will be done: delivery terms state how and when the goods will be supplied and how they will be paid for; payments terms state how much the goods will be and particularly how much time is allowed for payment.
4. Negotiating Orders
Orders on the phone. Online orders. Orders in writing. Responding to orders. The customer….places the order. The supplier….acknowledges receipt of the order and responds. Documents: order forms, letter of order, email orders. Keywords: form: official document containing questions and spaces for answers; terms of sale: the conditions people offer or demand when selling something. Making orders on the telephone. After examining an offer, if you find the quotation acceptable, you place an order. You can usually order electronically using an online order form, or you can do it by post or fax on a form, either supplied by the seller with his offer, or on your company’s own printed form. If you do it by post, you will usually write a short covering letter, which will mention only the previous correspondence, if any, and the hope that the order will be fulfilled with care. You may be also be able to order telephonically if you give your credit card number or if you are a regular customer. Customers are increasingly doing their shopping on the Internet where they make their purchases by filling in “order forms” on the various websites they visit. Payment is usually by credit card or, nowadays, with Paypal, which offers a higher degree of security. Obviously the basic information required for an order is always the same: name, address, article and quantity, but sites often ask for extra information like the purchaser’s job or place of work for marketing purposes, and usually ask if the consumer is interested in receiving news updates electronically. Making orders in writing. If your order is in the form of a letter, the major points to cover are: quantity of goods: number of articles-weight of each item ordered: quality of goods: description of items (catalogue number, colour, model, finish, reference to samples submitted; price: price per item; total price of items ordered; discount granted if applicable; delivery terms: prompt-ready delivery; delivered by…including INCOTERMS; transport instructions: details concerning route to be covered, preference for a particular forwarding company, means of transport to be used (by road, rail, sea or air); insurance: instructions concerning coverage of the shipment; payment: details of settlement (means of payment agreed-time of settlement-name of bank involved in payment). Remember that your order is a legally binding document: if the supplier fills your order correctly, you cannot refuse payment. Responding to orders, giving confirmation. When an order comes in, you check to make sure that you can supply the goods requested and that the terms correspond to those stated in your offer. You then send your customer confirmation of the order if you can fulfil it. If you are not able to fulfil the order for any reason, you reply with an apology and, if appropriate, offer an alternative solution. If something is out of stock, for example, you could offer a different product with similar characteristics. You should never promise something that you cannot then provide. Your confirmation is a legally binding commitment to supply what has been ordered in conformity with the conditions stated.
5. Making and responding to complaints
Complaints on the phone. Complaints in writing. Responding to complaints. The customer ….informs the supplier about problems connected with the execution of an order. The supplier….suggests an adjustment. Documents: complaint forms, letters, faxes, emails. Keywords: adjustment: a change made to correct or improve something. Making complaints on the phone. Unfortunately, in buying and selling, sometimes things can go wrong for a number of different reasons. Communication about this sort of problems needs tact and restraint by both the importer and exporter, as the situation may be due entirely to circumstances beyond their control. In a first complaint to a supplier, outline the situation and ask for an explanation and-or solution. The tone of the letter, email or phone call should be non-provocative and relaxed. It may later become firmer or more annoyed if the exporter fails to respond and to complaint adequately.
Planning your complaint:
1. Refer to the order or goods and say what the problem is.
2. Say whether you intend to take or have already taken any action, or suggest a solution.
a. When the delivery is late, you can:
• tell the supplier to speed it up and give a deadline or ultimatum,
• reject it,
• cancel the order,
• offer to keep the goods at a discount.
b. When articles are missing you may either ask your supplier to complete thè delivery or cancel the order for what is missing.
c. When you receive the wrong goods or extra goods you can:
• reject them and ask the supplier to deliver what you ordered,
• keep them if the exporter grants a discount,
• keep the surplus on "sale-or-return" basis or on consignment, which means that you will try to sell it at the best obtainable prices, but you
will pay only when you have sold it and return it if you can't.
d. When the goods are the wrong quality or faulty, you can:
• claim a replacement at the supplier's expense,
• return them (at the supplier's expense) and cancel your order,
• offer to keep them at a discount.
e. When you receive damaged goods, you have to find out who is responsible for the damage. For example, the exporter may not have packed the
goods correctly, or the carrier may have treated them roughly. In most cases you need to contact the insurers to recover the cost of the damaged
goods (and the lost profits) and you contact the suppliers for replacements, etc.
Responding to complaints:
Even if you feel that a complaint is unfounded, your reply should be polite and helpful. If the complaint is justified, you should try and put the matter right as quickly as possible.
Planning your letter or email
1. Say that you have received your customer's complaint and summarise the problem.
2. Apologise and explain the cause of the problem, if appropriate.
3. Accept the customer's suggestion or give a counter-proposal.
a. When you have delivered the wrong goods or quantities, or something is missing, apologise and negotiate what to do
• with extra goods: the customer can return them or keep them with a discount or on consignment;
• with missing goods: reassure the customer that they will be shipped immediately;
• with the wrong goods: arrange to pick them up if the customer doesn't want to keep them (despite favourable terms you can offer as an incentive).
b. When your customer is unhappy with the quality:
• if you agree with your customer, you should apologise and agree to replace the goods, or, if the customer is willing to keep them, accept (or politely reject) their conditions;
• you may disagree and insist you fulfilled the order correctly (but bear in rnind the old saying that the customer is always right - even if you are sure you are right, do you want to lose future orders?).
c. When your customer complains that the goods are faulty, first investigate the matter. If the complaint is justified, apologise and accept any reasonable suggestion ths customer makes to put matters right.
d. When the goods are damaged:
• if the goods get damaged in transit, your customers will deal with the insurers who covered the shipment.
You only have to give them a reply about any replacements required;
• if, however, the goods were damaged when they left your premises, you should apologise and replace them
4. Apologise again and refer optimistically to future business.
6. Payments problems
Making and responding to requests for payments. Letter of reminder. Responding to letters of reminder. The customer….responds to the suppliers’ reminder. The supplier…..reminds the customer about overdue payment and follows up as necessary. Documents: letters, emails, faxes. Keywords: bad debt: non-payment; overdue: late; reminder: communication to solicit payment; repay: pay off the debts.
Late-paying customers. European businesses and official bodies lose around 25 billion euro every year because they have to finance unnecessary credits. Late-paying customers put the companies they buy from at risk of cash-flow problems and even bankruptcy, and late and uncertain payment is a major barrier to free trade. Bad debt (non-payment) is an even bigger problem. The European average fluctuated between 1.7 and 1.9% of all invoices in the period between spring 2004 and 2007, with the countries in the Baltic region and Central Europe the riskiest places to do business (around 3%) and Scandinavia the least risky (around 1.1 %)
Letter of reminder. You must be very careful when writing a letter of reminder. You cannot be sure your clients are deliberately avoiding paying you: they may genuinely have forgotten, so you need to maintain a delicate balance between stating your request clearly and keeping your clients' goodwill. This is especially true for a first reminder. If it is a first reminder:
a. simply remind your client that payment is late. Give all relevant details like the invoice or account number, the due date and the sum owed;
b. to maintain goodwill, presume this was an honest mistake and make sure the client understands that this is a gentle reminder that payment is due;
c. confirm your belief that this is the case and that you look forward to receiving payment in the next few days.
If it is not a first reminder, you should write more firmly, also mentioning your previous letters, phone calls or emails and giving the dates. State the action you want your customer to take and anything you intend to do (for example interrupt the supply of products or a service, etc.). Reminders get progressively firmer and may then threaten legal action.
7. Job hunting. Making an application. When you find a job you are interested in, you need to convince your potential employer that you are the right person to fill the position. You do this either by sending a CV, or by filling in an application form, which many employers prefer as it gives a standardised format and thus saves the recruiter time. The CV or form will normally be sent with a covering letter in which you draw attention to the reasons why you would be right for the job, highlighting your key skills, experience and education, and getting the attention of potential employers. The letter should also demonstrate that you have done your homework: including details specific to the job you seek shows that you have taken the time to consider the position, the company, and their needs. Lastly, it should demonstrate your writing and editing skills and make potential employers want to know more about you. Online forms, however, are often sent without a covering letter.
8. Business The occupation, work, or trade in which a person is engaged. Commercial, industrial, or professional dealings. A commercial enterprise or establishment. Volume or amount of commercial trade. The business of America is business. The organization of business. Sole traders. Partnerships. Limited companies. Cooperatives (co-op) The growth of business. Mergers. Takeovers. Acquisitions. Joint Ventures. Multinationals. The structure of a company. Board of directors. Managing director. Sales manager. Marketing manager. Human resources manager. Purchasing manager. Production manager. Finance Manager. Information Systems Manager. Business transaction. Speaking business. Writing business. Business Communication. Enquiries and replies. Offers and replies. Orders and replies, modification and cancellation of orders. Complaints and replies. Reminders and replies. Methods of payments. See also “factoring” and so on.
Synonyms: business, industry, commerce, trade, traffic. These nouns apply to forms of activity that have the objective of supplying commodities. Business pertains broadly to commercial, financial, and industrial activity: decided to go into the oil business. Industry entails the production and manufacture of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale: the computer industry.
Commerce and trade refer to the exchange and distribution of goods or commodities: laws regulating interstate commerce; involved in the domestic fur trade. Traffic pertains in particular to businesses engaged in the transportation of goods or passengers: renovated the docks to attract shipping traffic. The word may also suggest illegal trade: discovered a brisk traffic in stolen goods.

9. Entering Foreign Markets. Market factors are the main reason companies decide to start doing business abroad. As their domestic markets become saturated, they turn to vast untapped markets in other countries, particularly in the developing world, where in countries like China increasing affluence brings new potential customers for all sorts of consumer goods that people in the developed world already have. Obviously there are risks involved: unfamiliar market conditions lead many companies into making basic errors and failing, or there may be political risks like corruption, War and civil unrest. How to enter foreign markets:
• risks can be limited by selling franchises to entrepreneurs who are given the right to sell a product or service in return for a share of the profits or a fee. This means it is the franchisee who makes the investment and takes the risks; • selling products to an import company which then resells them in their local market is also a relatively risk-free method of entering foreign markets; • local agents can be appointed to represent a company In return for commission on sales. Choosing the right agents is important as they should he familiar with the market and local regulations and also be able to check the credit-worthiness of potential clients; • opening a branches or setting up a subsidiary is far riskier, even with local investors, as both options require heavy initial Investment;
• joint ventures with a local partner operating in a related field are also expensive, but have the advantage that the local partner knows the market, and expenses, risks and useful local contacts are shared.
International Trade. Goods can be made or produced in one country and sent to another to he sold: this is known as exporting. China, for example, exports clothes to much of the EU.
Importing, on the other hand, is when goods are brought into a country to be sold there, so we can say the EU imports clothes from China. The balance of trade is the difference between how much a country exports and how much it imports. If a country exports more than it imports, it is said to have a trade surplus; if it imports more, it has a trade deficit. The balance of trade includes goods - visible exports and imports like food, machines, etc. - and services like tourism and banking, called invisible exports (because you cannot see what is sold) which bring in invisible earnings. A country's balance of payments is the difference between the money coming into a country and the amount going out. If more money comes into a country than goes out, there is a balance of payments surplus; if more money goes out, there is a balance of payments deficit. The balance of trade and the balance of payments are the methods used for talking about a country's volume of international trade
international organizations for global trade. To counteract protectionism and enforce a fair balance in global trading practices, a number of supranational organizations have been established, of which the World Trade Organization (WTO) is the most important. 'The WTO aims to ensure that global trading respects agreements designed to eliminate trade harriers and avoid trade distortion. The authors of these agreements are the member governments themselves - the agreements are the outcome of negotiations among members. This means that when a member government feels another is violating an agreement or a commitment that it has made in the WTO in any way, it can appeal to the WTO. Ultimate responsibility for settling disputes also lies with member governments, through the Dispute Settlement Body. THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION • Location: Geneva, Switzerland
• Established: 1st January 1995 • memberships: 151 countries as of August 2007 • Function: it is a permanent organization ruling on international trade disputes.
Other important international organizations are the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB).The two were set up in 1994 to provide loans and encourage growth and stability in developing countries, but there is a lot of criticism about how the two organizations try to achieve these very valid goals. The primary mission of the IMF is to provide short-term financial assistance to countries experiencing serious financial difficulties, but IMF loans usually come with conditions, like decreased government spending and privatisation of vital national resources, which in many cases have left countries in worse states than those they were in before implementing the IMF reforms.
The World Bank, which provides low-interest loans to poor countries for development projects, has often been criticised for encouraging major infrastructure-building programmes, regardless of the sometimes enormous negative impact on the environment and local ecosystems.
Trade Blocs. There are enormous economic interests at stake in the world of trade and commerce. National producers want to protect their home markets so governments are under pressure to pass restrictive laws or subsidise, products, thus distorting trade. Free-trade areas have been established to promote trade between countries but behave much like national markets in that even as they eliminate internal trade barriers, they maintain external ones. The European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and MERCOSUR in South America are all important trade blocs.



Going to pubs is a very popular leisure-time activity. In a recent survey seven out of ten adults said they went to pubs, one third of them once a week or more often.
Types of pubs vary considerably from quiet rural establishments with traditional games, such as skittles and dominoes, to city pubs where different sorts of entertainment such as drama and live music can often be found. The opening hours of pubs, which were previously strictly controlled, have been relaxed and many pubs now serve food as well as drink. Some pubs have become more welcoming to families with younger children than in the past, although children under fourteen are still not allowed in the bar.
British drinking habits have changed, with lager and continental beers now more popular than traditional forms of British beer. In cities, wine bars have appeared in competition with pubs. Although, in general, people in Britain now drink more than they used to, new types of drinks such as alcohol-free beer and wine have appeared and there has been a general move to educate people more about the dangers of drinking too much.


Percentages Men Women

Out and about
Seaside 7 8
Country 3 3
Parks 3 4
Visiting historic buildings 8 8
Going to museums and art galleries 3 3
Going to fairs and amusement arcades 1 2
In the evenings
Going to the cinema 7 8
Going to the theatre, opera and ballet 4 5
Playing amateur music and drama 3 3
Going to evening classes 1 2
Going out for a meal 41 40
Going out for a drink 64 46
Dancing 10 12
At home
Listening to records and tapes 65 62
Gardening 50 39
Sewing and knitting 2 48
House repairs and DIY 51 24
Reading books 50 61


British people now have more free time and holidays than they did twenty years ago. The average number of working hours has fallen, and by the mid-1980s almost all full-time manual employees were entitled to four weeks holidays including Christmas and Easter.
The increasing number of pensioners and the number of unemployed, particularly the young, means that large sections of the population have found themselves with more leisure time. Typical popular pastimes in the UK include listening to pop music, going to pubs, playing and watching sport, going on holidays, doing outdoor activities and watching TV.
The number of people playing sports has risen, partly due to the availability of more sporting facilites such as local leisure centres. As more people become aware of the necessity
for exercise, it is estimated that one third of the adult population regularly takes part in outdoor sport and about a quarter in indoor sport.
Among the most popular sporting activities are walking, swimming, snooker and darts; fishing is the most popular country sport.
Football, cricket, horse racing and motor sports are all popular spectator sports. Many magazines are published which relate to popular and minority sports and interests.
Multi-screen cinemas have become more common and the number of people going to the cinema increased in the mid-1980s, having fallen by more than a half between 1971 and 1984. This was despite a large increase in the popularity of home videos: Britain has one of the highest rates of home video owenership in the world.
Pubs are an important part of British social life (more than restaurants) and more money is spent on drinking than on any other form of leisure activity. Holidays are the next major leisure cost, followed by television, radio, musical instruments, and eating out.
If they have enough money, people travel more (the increase in private cars is an influence) and take more holidays. The numbers going abroad increased from 7 million in the early 1970s to 17 million in the mid-80s, with Spain still the most popular foreign destination.


Use the information of the texts to answer the questions.

1 What free time and holidays do people in Britain have?
2 Why has sport become more popular?
3 How has cinema-going changed in recent years? What has helped to cause these
4 What are the most popular leisure activities in Britain?
5 Which are the most popular destinations for British people going abroad on holiday?

Discussion Work in pairs.

1 Do people have more spare time than they used to in your country? When are the major public holidays?
2 What leisure activities do you prefer? How much time and money do you spend on them?






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