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The first meal of the day in the morning is breakfast (usually eaten between about 7:30 and 9:00). Many British people eat toast with butter or margarine and jam (often strawberry, raspberry, apricot or blackcurrant jam), marmalade (a type of jam made from oranges) or Marmite (a dark brown spread made from yeast). Melon, grapefruit or fruit cocktail are popular. Others eat a bowl of cereal; for example, cornflakes or muesli with milk, or porridge (a mixture of oats, hot milk and sugar). A traditional English breakfast (also known as a cooked breakfast or a fry-up) is a cooked meal which may contain food such as sausages, bacon, kippers (herring - a type of fish - which has been covered in salt and smoked), black pudding, scrambled or fried or poached egg (for details about how to cook a poached egg, mushrooms, fried tomatoes, baked beans, hash browns and toast. People sometimes eat a boiled egg, dipping (dunking) strips of toast (soldiers) into the egg yolk. A continental breakfast is a small meal and is not cooked; for example, a bread roll or croissant with cheese or ham and a cup of coffee. The most common drinks at this time of day are orange juice or a cup of breakfast tea.

Many people have a tea-break at about 11:00 in the morning (elevenses). If a meal is eaten in the late morning instead of both breakfast and lunch, it is called brunch. This word is a combination of breakfast and lunch. People have brunch when it is too late for breakfast but too early for lunch! It is quite fashionable to have brunch meetings. In the UK and the USA, brunch menus are found in many coffee shops and restaurants, especially at the weekend. Brunch is usually served from 11:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m.

Lunch (sometimes called more formally luncheon) is the meal eaten in the middle of the day (usually between about 12:30 and 2:00). Many people eat a sandwich (also known as a butty or sarnie in some parts of the UK). Some people have a simple meal such as cheese and biscuits or soup and bread. A ploughman's lunch is a traditional lunch for farmers: a bread roll, Cheddar cheese, Branston pickle and salad, perhaps with a pork pie. It is also traditional for people to go to a pub with some friends for a pub lunch and a drink.

A Sunday roast is a traditional meal eaten by a family at Sunday lunchtime; for example, roast beef with roast potatoes, parsnips, peas, Brussels sprouts, green beans, Yorkshire pudding, bread sauce and gravy. Mint sauce or redcurrant jelly is often eaten with lamb, apple sauce with pork, and horseradish sauce (a type of mustard) with beef, cranberry sauce with turkey. Stuffing may be eaten with chicken or turkey.

A few years ago the word was happy hour or brunch. Today the new trend is slunch. It comes from the combination of supper and lunch and it refers to a late afternoon meal, possibly on Sundays. It is commonly eaten from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. and it is a sort of snack/aperitif/light dinner you want to have when it is too late for lunch and too early for dinner. It is also a combination of the leftovers of the the previous days plus freshly prepared dishes. The leading foods are vegetables - either raw or cooked -, proteins, starches and dairy products. The list is rich and varied: cold soups, like gazpacho, salty pies, quiche, carrots, broccoli, celery, starches like bread, cold pasta and rice salads, but vitamins can also be found in tomatoes, avocados, corn, peas, herbs... As to proteins turkey, chicken, and ham can be included but no eggs because they are too difficult to digest. Desserts include cheese, yoghurt, and fruits. Everything is accompanied with wine, sangria and champagne. Slunch can be consumed either in a `à la mode' restaurant or in a private house with friends.

Tea-time is a small meal eaten in the late afternoon (usually between about 3:30 and 5:00). People may drink tea, and often eat biscuits (American English: cookies), cakes or savoury foods such as sandwiches, crumpets or tea-cakes. Occasionally people may have a full afternoon tea or a cream tea: this includes a scone with jam and cream (usually either whipped cream or thick clotted cream) as well as a selection of sandwiches and cakes. For an example of a traditional afternoon tea menu, see the Ritz Hotel's site: http://www.theritzhotel.co.uk/tea/teamenu.asp

High tea is a light meal eaten in the early evening (for example, 6 o'clock) served with a pot of tea; this is popular in north England and Scotland. Supper is the most common name for the meal eaten in the evening (usually between 7:00 and 8:30). Dinner is another common name for supper, but sometimes it is also used to refer to lunch, especially when this is the main meal of the day. A dinner party is a formal evening meal to which guests have been invited. A common type of cooked meal in Britain is meat and two veg. This is a meat dish served together on the same plate with two types of vegetable, one of which is often a type of potato. It is common to eat a dessert (also known as a pudding, or informally as afters) after the main dish. You can see an example of a traditional English restaurant menu from the website of Rules, the oldest restaurant in London: http://www.rules.co.uk/rest/mfmenu.html.

It is increasingly popular for British people get a takeaway or go to a restaurant instead of cooking at home, and often this is used as a chance to try different types of food. Most towns have an Indian restaurant, serving foods such as curry and chicken tikka masala. Chinese restaurants are also very common; popular dishes include sweet and sour pork and aromatic duck. Many people like Italian pizza and pasta dishes. Fast food restaurants often serve beefburgers or fried chicken. Fish and chip shops are still popular, especially in towns by the coast. There is an old tradition of eating fish on Friday.
British people enjoy eating snacks between meals. These include sweets (American English: candy) and crisps (American English: chips).


Many visitors to Britain do not have a clear idea about British food. Below are responses to some comments made by international students after being asked the question, "What do you think about British food?"

"What is it?"
Many visitors do not know what British food is, maybe because there are not many British restaurants in other parts of the world. If so, you can learn about some types of traditional British food by exploring all of the pages in the Britain/Food section.

"It's greasy"
You may think that British people eat greasy food (like fish and chips or a fried breakfast) every day. You may be offered a cooked breakfast every day if you stay in a hotel or bed and breakfast, but this is not normal life. Most British people only eat these foods occasionally (perhaps once a week, or less often). Britain is a dairy country, however - so milk, butter, cheese and cream are used more than in some countries.

"It's boring"
Perhaps you have already stayed in the UK and found the food boring or not tasty. This could be because you haven't tasted good home cooking or the food in high quality restaurants. There is actually a very wide variety of food. As well as the traditional British food shown here, there are also Chinese dishes, Indian curry, Spanish tapas, Italian pizza or pasta, Turkish kebabs, Japanese sushi and so on. Ingredients are available from many parts of the world, both in specialist shops and in ordinary supermarkets.

"It's dangerous"
British farmers have had some problems in recent years due to the spread of BSE (mad cow disease) within cattle in the 1990s, and then foot-and-mouth disease within sheep in 2001. These diseases caused many animals to be killed, and led to the introduction of new controls. Scientists believe that BSE can be passed to humans as a disease known as variant CJD, but cases are rare and seem to be linked to times before the new controls were put in place. Foot-and-mouth in sheep is not passed on to humans by eating lamb, and since 2001 there have only been a few cases of the disease in sheep. So is it safe to eat British meat? Probably - most British people continue to eat it, and the controls in the UK are now some of the tightest in the world. There are many shops or restaurants selling vegetarian and organic food if you prefer to eat this.


The advertisements attract us with images of crispy fries, icy shakes, and delicious burgers. But fast food can play a big role in ruining your health.

American kids between the ages of 12 and 17 spend about $13 billion a year on fast food. They eat seven percent of their meals at fast food restaurants and eat there an average of twice a week. Fast food is a convenient and cheap alternative to a home-cooked meal when people are busy with school, work and other activities. But fast food has a negative side too:
it's often high in fat, calories and cholesterol (which can block up your arteries). Many teenagers say,"Why should I care about how many calories are in a burger and fries? I eat it because it tastes good, not because it's good for me". This attitude and the excessive consumption of fast food are creating an obesity problem in teens.This doesn't mean that all fast food is necessarily bad. It means that fast food needs to fit into a healthy, well-balanced diet. If you choose wisely, fast food can be part of a healthy eating plan. Here are some tips.

- Don't choose the super size. People think that the extra-large portions are excellent value for money. But, if you're not going to lose all those extra calories through exercise, it's better to order regular size portions. Don't be embarrassed to even ask for a kid's meal size.
- Balance fast food with other food. If you have fried chicken for one meal, have something completely different for the next meal and include some of the ingredients missing from the fried chicken meal.
- Avoid special Sauces. Mayonnaise and sauces are heavy in calories. It's not a good idea to choose a light salad and then cover it with thick heavy sauces.
- Share your order with a friend. If you can't resist the fast food temptation, take just half. It's better for both of you, and better for your pocket too.
- Follow the food guide pyramid. Try to get the recommended quantities from each food group. Remember you need moderation and variety in your diet.
- Don't forget nature's fast food. If you want a quick snack, why not try a piece of fruit or raw vegetable for a change?


In London there is a fantastic variety of places to eat out. You can try out the cuisine from all corners of the world and there are restaurants, pubs, cafes and bars for every taste and pocket. London offers a huge diversity of restaurants. Over io,ooo of them reflect the capital's mixture of cultures and nationalities providing a rich variety of styles, cuisines and dishes from over 5o countries, including Greek, Italian, Indian, Chinese, African and West Indian. You can also find traditional and modern British food on the menus of many of London's restaurants. Cafes are good for cheap lunches and snacks although they often close early in the evening. Many of the big department stores have self-service cafes which are very popular at lunch-time. In recent years American-style coffee shops have opened up all over the city, serving a range of different types of coffee as well as snacks. Pub culture plays a very important role in the life of the city. An impressive selection of drinks is on offer, including a wide range of beer, wine and spirits as well as soft drinks. But many pubs also serve excellent food at very reasonable prices, especially at lunch-time. If you just want to eat something quickly, call into one of the fast food restaurants where you'll find the usual range of burgers and fries. Many of these places have become more health-conscious recently and now also offer salads and vegetarian dishes. The cheapest option of all is to buy a takeaway meal and eat in the park. There is a good choice of places selling takeaway food, including sandwich bars, pizzas, kebabs and "jacket potatoes" with a variety of fillings. Don't forget to try some good old British "fish and chips", the most traditional takeaway meal of all.


Knowing words that describe cooking and preparation can be very useful in the kitchen to stop misunderstanding. Here is a chart of the most common terms.
Method Description

Baste.  To spoon liquid over food during cooking to keep it moist
Beat.  A fast movement using a fork or a whisk to make ingredients light and airy
Blanch.  To put fruit or vegetables into boiling water to loosen their skins
Chop.  Cut meat or vegetable into small pieces
Cream.  To make ingredients cream like
Dice.  Chop ingredients into small cubes
Dilute.  Adding water to make a sauce thinner and /or less strong in taste.
Glaze.  Brush with egg or milk in baking to give a golden finish
Julienne.  Cut vegetables into matchstick shaped pieces
Marinate.  Soaking ingredients in a liquid before cooking to add moisture or flavour.
Purée.  Make ingredients into a smooth semi-liquid texture.
Season.  To add seasoning such as salt, pepper or herbs before, during or after cooking
Sieve.  Used to pass flour
Stone.  To remove stones or pips from fruit
Strain.  To separate solids and liquid using a colander


It is important to know the various cooking methods so you can choose the best one for your needs. Here is a chart of the main ones.

Cooking method Description Food concerned
Roast. Traditional oven cooking or spit cooking using oil. Meat, fish, poultry, some game and vegetables.
Bake. Traditional dry oven cooking without oil. Bread, pastries and cakes.
Grill. The food is cooked in contact with heat by radiation. Fish, meat and vegetables.
(Barbecue, grill with the oven.)
Boil. The food is cooked in a large quantity boiling water. Vegetables, pasta, cereals, dry beans, meat and fish.
Steam cooking. The food is cooked in the vapour of boiling water or stock. Vegetables and fish.
Braise. One first browns the food in a thick pan with a little oil then cook with a small amount of liquid in a covered container. Meat and poultry
Stew. The food is cooked slowly in its fat content in a closed container on a low flame. Fatty meat
Fry. Food is cooked in hot fat (180°) Vegetables, meat and fish.
Microwave. The waves agitate the water molecules thus causing friction which cooks the food Any food containing water
Stir-fry. Food is cooked very quickly on a high flame in a small amount of fat, using a wok or a large skillet. Vegetables, meat and small fish.
Barbecue. Cooking on an open fire. Vegetables, meat and fish.
Poach. Simmer gently in water or stock. Vegetables and fish.


Restaurants are classified based on the kind of food, type of clients and price range. We can have:

1) Fast-Food Restaurants:
• type of food: hamburgers, french fries, soft drinks, (often pre-cooked items);
• type of clients: teenagers, families, students;
• price range: inexpensive.

2) Self-Service Restaurants:
• type of food: soups, pasta, metas, vegetables, desserts (usually prepared in advance);
• type of clients: employees, students, tourists;
• price range: inexpensive.

3) Ethnic Restaurant
• Type of food: international food, such as Chinese, Mexican, Brazilian, Indian
• Type of clients: all types
• Price range: inexpensive to average

4) Hotel Restaurant
• Type of food: all types, based on the hotel category
• Type of clients: mostly hotel guests, but also external clients (particularly for special occasions such as weddings, birthday parties, and meetings)
• Price range: average to very expensive, depending on the hotel type

5) Coffee Shop
• Type of food: sandwiches, hot and cold drinks, ice cream, snack items
• Type of clients: employees, students, tourists
• Price range: inexpensive

6) Speciality Restaurant
• Type of food: speciality cuisine such as pasta, pizza, rice and fish
• Type of clients: all types, including families
• Price range: average to expensive

7) Gourmet Restaurant
• Type of food: top quality and elaborate dishes
• Type of clients: VIPs, business clients, celebrities, conference delegates, wealthy people
• Price range: expensive to very expensive


In a restaurant, a menu is a printed brochure or public display that shows the list of options for a diner to select. A menu may be a la carte or table d'hôte.
"Menu" can also be used in a more general sense, as synonymous with diet, the selection of foods available generally to a particular location or culture.
The word menu, like much of the terminology of cuisine, is French in origin. It ultimately derives from Latin minutus, something made small; in French it came to be applied to a detailed list or résumé of any kind. The original menus that offered consumers choices were prepared on a small chalkboard, in French a carte; so foods chosen from a bill of fare are described as à la carte, "according to the board."
Along with the development of the earliest restaurants catering largely to the middle merchant class, the menu also found its origins in China during the Song Dynasty (960–1279).
The original restaurants had no menus in the modern sense; these table d'hôte establishments served dishes that were chosen by the chef or the proprietors, and those who arrived ate what the house was serving that day, as in contemporary banquets or buffets. In Europe, the contemporary menu first appeared in the second half of the eighteenth century.
Here, instead of eating what was being served from a common table, restaurants allowed diners to choose from a list of unseen dishes, which were produced to order by the customer's selection. A table d'hôte establishment charged its customers a fixed price; the menu allowed customers to spend as much or as little money as they chose.
Often times quick service restaurants feature a "secret menu." Secret Menu items are items not featured on printed menus but readily available should a customer wish to order them. These items are typically simply variations on items already available, but to have them all on the menu would create clutter. Chipotle is well known for having a simple five item menu, but offers quesedillas and single tacos, despite neither being on the menu board.

Before learning about the origin of the menu, study the following keywords and their definitions. Nlcim = list of foods and drinks offered in a bar, restaurant, or similar catering establishment Course = the successive division of a meal: soups, fish, main, etc.
Diner = person who eats a meal
The bill of fare, as it was first called in English, or menu in French, was not always presented at the table. The banquet consisted of only two courses, each made up of a variety of 10 to 40 dishes. The first course was placed on the table before the diners were seated and this is why it was called an entrée. Once the entrée had been consumed, it was removed or relieved by 10 to 40 other dishes, hence the word relevé.
The bill of fare was very large and was placed at the end of the table so that everyone could read it. Over time, the menu became smaller and there was a copy on every table.
The menu is a very important part of the caterer's work. Its correct compilation is acquired through experience and study. The menu can be compared to a bridge linking the establishment to the customer and partially determining the volume of business. For these reasons, it should be compiled by a number of people working together in strict collaboration: the Head Chef, the Maitre d'Hótel and the Manager. The result of their work should be a list of dishes forming a well-balanced and appetising meal, which can be presented in a very simple or rather artistic layout.

Why Is a menu so important?
A menu often influences the customer and when designing menus, chefs and restaurateurs try to appeal to certain market segments. They create the atmosphere of the restaurant with decor, furniture and uniforms. The restaurant may be a speciality or fast-food restaurant, yet the physical
surroundings, together with the items on the menu, create a complete image to meet the needs of a particular segment of the market.

Types of Menus: There are two major types of menus:
- table d'hóte
- à la carte
In addition, there are two minor types:
- coffee shop menu
- carte du jour

A la Carte

In English, à la carte translate literally as "on the card" and a typical à la carte menu features:
- full list of prepared dishes
- separately priced dishes
- dishes that can require longer preparation times
- dishes that are prepared to order

An à la carte menu is generally presented alone in first-class establishments, or with a table d'hóte or carte du jour menu in smaller establishments. The dishes may change according to the season.

Carte du jour

It is characterised by the following:
- individually priced dishes
- dishes may change daily or remain for a period of time
The carte du jour menu is usually presented with a table d'hóte menu and sometimes with a limited à la carte menu. It is generally found in medium-sized establishments.

Coffee Shop Menu

Considered the limited form of an a la carte menu, its main characteristics are:
- dishes are prepared with a minimum delay
- items can range from a beverage to a sandwich to a three-course meal
- price range is normally inexpensive
This type of menu allows the establishment a higher seating turnover than the à la carte menu and is aimed at shoppers, office workers, and people who have little time to dine. Another characteristic is that the service is less formal and the eating experience is much quicker. People might eat here for breakfast, brunch or lunch but generally it is not the type of place in which dinner is served.

Classic Menu Sequence

The number of courses and the number of dishes within each course may vary depending on the size and type of the restaurant. The courses, or sections, of a full menu can be divided as follows:

1. appetiser or hors-d'oeuvre 2. soup or potages 3. egg or ceufs 4. rice and pasta or féculents 5. fish or poisson 6. entrées 7. sorbet 8. relevés 9. roast or róti


Kitchen Areas and Heavy Equipment. Here is a plan of a modern kitchen in which everything has been designed to accommodate easy handling and ergonomically studied for the comfort of the kitchen staff. (Coldroom; Freezer; Blast Chiller; Cold Preparation Area; Hot Preparation Area; Patisserie). Equipment: Utensil washer; Twin-well fryer; Six-burner boiling table; Six-burner range; Ten-grid combination oven; Four-burner range; Solid-top range; Stockpot stove; Hot bench; Mixer.

A modern and efficiently organized new kitchen

Mr. George Brown is the chef of Harvey Nichols Fourth Floor Cafe and Bar and proudly shows his newly redesigned kitchen. "It is a pleasure to come to work" he says. "My daylight hours are not spent in artificial lighting in some basement. The main cooking area opens out on to a restaurant four stories above street level, which means that on a bright spring day the sunlight streams through a wall of windows running the entire length of the room. Last August I got my new kitchen designed to my specification. I spent a year planning it, and there were many health and safety problems to solve. The challenge was to create a lighter, better working environment while being able to prepare more food than before."
The refurbishment took a week. The restaurant closed on a Saturday night after regular service hours. The kitchen and the bar were emptied and Sunday morning, at 7 a.m. the contractors started the job. Some existing pieces of equipment, including four fridges and a combi-oven were kept. New key items included a Winterhalter dishwasher, a Williams refrigeration and two Charvet cooking ranges. The staff is now able to use a wider range of products and organise further in advance, while continuing to operate on afresh food principle.
Lunches are served seven days a week while dinners on three evenings. Fifteen is the number of chefs employed full time.
The benefits of these renovations are described by the manager: "Service is a lot quicker. There are many customers that only have one hour for lunch and they know they can be in and out in that time. Our business has doubled since the changes. " Worth trying, isn't it?

Main cooking suite. What they needed was more ovens underneath and more firepower on top. The new cooking suite includes a chargrill, a plancha and a twin-basket fryer. The plancha is a smooth chrome griddle for cooking without pans. It is fantastic for cooking fish.

Cold preparation area. In addition to the restaurant's 100 covers, the kitchen prepares the Mediterranean-style snacks served in the 80 seat café downstairs. Besides ample stainless-steel work surfaces, the area includes fridges for raw and cooked meat, a freezer and a blast chiller used for chilling soups, stocks and sauces, pastry items such as brúlées and meat and poultry for sandwiches.

Hot preparation area. The hot preparation area has been increased by 90 % with the addition of a second Charvet suite comprising a 75-litre gas boiling pan, tilting bratt pan, solid top and twin burners with an oven underneath. The tilting bratt pan and the 75-litre boiling pan are used for the preparation of stocks, sauces and soups, but also for sealing large quantities of meat for functions.

Dishwashing area. Before refurbishing the area was . rather constricted, but now it is compact and self¬contained, with a separate door for waiters dumping dirty dishes. Plenty of racking and efficient storage space ensure breakages are kept to a minimum.

Refrigeration. A bank of Williams under-counter refrigerators keeps ingredients close at hand providing plenty of surface area with stainless steel worktops for preparation. Two refrigerated drawers store salad ingredients, and extra refrigeration for
meat and fish sits under the gantry running parallel to the cooking suite.

Pastry kitchen. A corner of the kitchen is dedicated to pastry. There is an ice-cream freezer, a convention oven, refrigerated cabinets, a mixer and a marble work surface on which to prepare sweets like chocolate mousse with passion fruit sauce.


The Modern Brigade System
Late in the 19th Century, the ingenious chef Georges¬Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935) created the modern brigade system while working in London at the Savoy Hotel. For getting the utmost efficiency, he organized the kitchen as a strict hierarchical ladder of authori¬ties, duties and functions.
At the top of this ladder we find the head chef (chef de cuisine) who coordinates and supervises the kitchen activities, establishes the standards, works out the prices on the menu. He also directs the trainees on work experience.
The head chef is assisted by an under chef (sous-chef ), who supervises how the food is prepared, portioned and arranged according to the head chefs directions. Subordinate are the section chefs (chefs de partie); each one is in charge of the preparation of particular food and dishes. Of course the number of the section chefs depends on the size and the class of the restaurant as well as the number of assistants.
The kitchen brigade includes also these roles:
- assistants (commis): they help the section chefs in the kitchen and may be trainee cooks or students on work placement. Their duties are basic such as cutting vegetables or cleaning;
- dishwashers (plongeurs): in charge of loading and unloading dishwashers and cleaning dirty pots and pans to be scrubbed;
- storekeepers: in charge of the food supply and storage.
The size of the kitchen brigade usually depends on the type of establishment and the food that is served. Due to the high costs involved in employing a large staff, many food establishments now expect much more flexibility from a smaller kitchen brigade. Another factor in kitchen staff reduction is the dramatic impact that technology and standardisation have had on the industry. Processes such as the "Cook & Chill system" have greatly reduced the need for large staff requirements. Luxury hotels and first-class restaurants around the globe still employ large brigades because they must provide efficiency and personalised service which are necessary for the standards of their clientele.
Yet, the costs of maintaining such establishments are very high. They are not only restricted to the structure of the hotel or restaurant, but also include staff salaries. Therefore, the personnel is expected to be versatile and extremely skilled in their specific area of expertise. The employees need to have the ability to organise duties and solve any problems that may arise in daily operations.

Let's Meet the Kitchen Brigade

Depending on skill, training and perseverance, a chef can climb the ranks and gain more prestige and responsibility. Many famous chefs have planned their own progress and worked in some of the most notorious restaurants under some of the most renowned chefs in the world until they, too, became skilled and well-known.
Fame and notoriety often produce authors, training specialists, TV personalities, consultants, etc. Many people think that a chef is just someone who cooks. This is not necessarily the case; working as a chef can take you to all corners of the globe and earn high salaries but only if you are very skilled and dedicated. You must decide where you want to go and how you wish to get there.

Kitchen Trivia
What's the difference between a chef and a cook? Is there any difference? Generally speaking, a cook is a person who is skilled in preparing food while a chef is usually a head cook, which implies a higher level of prestige. In the restaurant business, most positions use the term chef, as you will see later when we meet the kitchen brigade.

Chef de Garde
The Chef de Garde is in charge of the kitchen area when there is no service, perhaps checking food items or preparing lounge service orders. He/she may have to accept deliveries, messages and carry out duties as specified by the Head Chef or the Second Chef.

Roast Chef  (Rôtisseur)
As the name suggests, the Roast Chef is responsible for preparing all roasted items but also frying fish.

Sauce Chef (Saucier)
This chef prepares all the sauces, except those for fish dishes, but also prepares the meat, poultry and game entrées, excluding roasted meats.

Soup Chef (Potager)
The soup chef prepares all the soups and stocks and often prepares egg and farinaceous dishes, too.

Vegetable Chef (Entremétier)
He/she prepares all the vegetables to be used by the various chefs.

Commis Chef
These are the kitchen trainee chefs, who work under the various chefs. The Commis Chef's duties vary, depending on the size of the establishment.

Kitchen Clerk

Kitchen clerks are normally found in large establishments. They assist the Head Chef by calling out the kitchen orders brought by the waiters and waitresses.


Answer the following questions.

1. Who invented the kitchen brigade?
2. Where can we find a kitchen brigade?
3. What are the main roles of a head chef?
4. Who assists the head chef?
5. What are the duties of an under chef?
6. Who are the section chefs? What are their duties?
7. Is there a fixed number of section chefs in a kitchen brigade
8. What are the tasks of a dishwasher?
9. What does the storekeeper do?


Would you like to work in a kitchen brigade? Which role would you like to have? Why?

HACCP and Safety Procedures

Most people carry Staphylococcus aereus bacteria in the nose and mouth. Each time they sneeze or touch their nose or mouth, bacteria are transferred to food, drinks, glasses, and other food and drink-related items.
Food Service Hygiene
Customer health safety is extremely important, therefore proper hygiene in the food and beverage industry must be treated with the utmost respect and attention. Look at the ways in which restaurant environments can become contaminated with germs.
• bacteria on raw food are usually killed during cooking but germs are easily spread from raw to cooked food, for example by using a knife to fillet raw meat then slicing bread with the same knife. Another typical example is using a spoon to taste food then reusing the spoon without
washing it
• bacteria live on dust and dirt but flies, ants, spiders, cockroaches, mice, rats and pigeons are all vehicles which easily transport them to food and drink items
• sneezing over food or drinks, not washing hands after removing dirty glassware and tableware, smoking, and spitting while talking over glasses, china, cutlery and plates are all means' that spread bacteria
• in busy service periods, glasses may not always be washed properly
• detergents and cleansers can be mistaken for food, especially if kept in food containers without labels
• hazards, such as cuts and burns, can result from utensil and heavy equipment misuse
• illnesses and infections are the most frequent culprits responsible for contaminating public environments

An Introduction to HACCP

Food industry proprietors, including pub and bar owners, commit an offence if they serve food or drink that is harmful to customers' health. An international set of general rules has been established, called Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP). Its scope is vast and deals with aspects of food safety and hazard analyses. The acronym HACCP is pronounced ha-sip.
HACCP is composed of seven parts.

1) Analyse Hazards - Anyone who works in the catering industry must be aware of the hazards associated with food and drink, therefore measures to control these hazards , have been established. Hazards can be biological (i.e. a microbe), chemical (i.e. a pesticide) or physical (i.e. metal fragments).
2) Identify Critical Control Points - These are the stages, or points, in the food 6 production process where hazards should be controlled or eliminated, from its raw stage through storing, processing, delivering and customer consumption. It is crucial : that food and drink items be cooled, packaged, stored, or delivered properly but it also means that they should be controlled at all other times.
3) Establish preventive measures with critical limits for each control point - This should be for any cooked food. For example, determining the minimum cooking temperature and time required to ensure the elimination of any microbes.
4) Establish procedures to monitor the critical control points. This could include deciding how cooking time and temperature should be supervised and who is responsible.
5) Establish corrective actions to be taken when monitoring which shows that a critical limit has not been met. For example, if meat is not fully cooked when checked, you should put it back in the oven until the minimum cooking time and temperature are reached.
6) Establish procedures to verify the system is working properly - Check time and temperature recording devices, making sure that all equipment works properly.
7) Establish an effective system of recording information to document the HACCP system - This includes recording hazards, their control methods and all actions taken
to correct potential problems.

You must be a responsible worker! When serving food and drinks, it is important to remember that your actions may have a negative impact on the health and well-being of your customers.

Four things are necessary to start and spread a fire: oxygen, fuel, heat, opportunity. Restaurants and kitchens are places in which the first three things, oxygen (in the air), fuel (anything which will burn) and heat are always present. Maintaining a safe environment is a must, therefore everyone at work, regardless of position, full-time or part-time status, has the duty to protect the health and safety of those around them. This is a legal and moral responsibility.


• Know the quickest and safest evacuation route.
• Assemble in an orderly manner at the assembly point.
• Close all the windows and fire exit doors.
• Turn off all appliances, such as hot plates, heaters, mixers, and microwaves.
• Take all fire drills seriously.


1 Use the nearest telephone.
2 Dial 999. No money is required.
3 Ask for the necessary service: ambulance, fire brigade or police.
4 Give the telephone number that you are calling from so that the operator can call you back, if necessary.
5 Speak calmly and clearly.
6 Give the location of the accident.
7 Give the nature of the accident or illness, the number of casualties and any details about injuries.
8 Remain on the line until the emergency service operator disconnects.
If the accident has been caused by an electric shock, break the contact by switching off the current at the plug or mains. Do not touch the victim until the current has been switched off as you might become a second victim.
Reassure the victim(s) kindly and confidently.
Keep the victim(s) protected from the cold.
Do not cover major burns.
Do not move the victim unless absolutely necessary.


Instructions for making a traditional British Sunday lunch: roast beef with Yorkshire pudding, roast poatatoes, vegetables and gravy. Other popular roast lunches are pork, lamb, chicken and turkey (especially at Christmas time).


Place meat and onions (cut into quarters) in a roasting tin. Pour some cooking oil over the onions. Use a skewer to make a hole in the meat and add an oven thermometer (if you have one). Cover with foil and place in a pre-heated oven at 350F (180C). The low temperature helps the meat to keep its flavour. The cooking time is about 20 minutes per pound of meat (1 pound is about 450 grams), plus another 20 minutes. For the 3-pound meat shown, the cooking time is 1 hour 20 minutes (= 3 x 20 minutes + 20 minutes).


Peel potatoes, cut, add to a pan with water and part-boil for about 10 minutes. Drain away the water.
Heat a little oil or fat in a roasting tin in an oven. When hot, put the potatoes into the tin. Turn the potatoes until they are covered in oil or fat.
Cook in an oven at a temperature of 400F (200C) for about 20 minutes (until brown at the edges).
Other vegetables to be served with the meal should be cooked at the same time.


Ingredient Imperial measure Metric measure
Plain flour 2 heaped tablespoons 40 g (grams)
Eggs 2 large eggs
Milk 5 fl oz (fluid ounces) = 0.25 pints 150 ml (millilitres)
Water 3 fl oz (fluid ounces) = 0.15 pints 75 ml (millilitres)

Break 2 eggs into the flour
Add mixture of milk and water

Whisk. Leave until 10 minutes
before the meal, and whisk again
Use a spoon to pour mixture
into a pre-heated metal tray

About 10 minutes before serving the meal, add a little oil to the bottom of a pre-heated metal tray (preferable a special Yorkshire pudding tray, but a rectangular tin can also be used). Spoon or pour the mixture you have made into the tray and cook for about 10 minutes until the Yorkshire pudding has risen and become brown at the edges.


Lunch plate
Dining room table
Roast beef, potatoes & gravy

Traditional accompaniments for roast beef are horseradish sauce and/or mustard. For roast lamb, people add redcurrant jelly and/or mint sauce. For pork, people add apple sauce, and for turkey they add cranberry sauce. Most people like to pour gravy over the meal to add extra flavour. A roast meal is traditionally served at home around a dining room table. As well as roast potatoes and Yorkshire pudding, two vegetables are often served with the meal (for example: carrots, peas, green beans or sprouts).

Sophie Grigson's Classic family Christmas dinnerThe menu (serves 8)

Prawn cocktail 'à la mode'
Use a mixture of king prawns and smaller prawns for the maximum texture and taste in this classic starter.

Roast turkey with bread sauce
You'll need a large piece of butter muslin (available from good cook shops or fabric shops) for this most classic of Christmas recipes.

Gratin of Brussels sprouts with lardons, cream and almonds
You won't hear any protests at this sprouts dish - almonds, double cream, bacon and parmesan make for a luscious accompaniment for traditional turkey.

Christmas pudding
This really is a figgy pudding as it includes dried figs, as well as all the usual dried fruit. The fig seeds bring a hint of a crunch to the finished pudding, which makes for a first-rate texture. Make and steam it at least a month in advance, so that it has time to mature.


It is common to pull a Christmas cracker before starting a Christmas meal. You ask a person next to you to pull one end, while you pull the other. The person who ends up holding the middle part wins the toy or other small gift which is inside. There is a paper hat to wear during the meal (if you want). Finally, there is a piece of paper with a joke written on it - you read out the question first and see if anyone can think of the answer, and then read out the answer. Don't worry if you can't understand the joke!


A typical Christmas meal is shown below. Roast turkey is the most common meat, but other birds such as chicken or goose are alternatives. Stuffing, roast potatoes, Brussels sprouts or other vegetables and gravy are eaten with the meat. For information about cooking a typical roast, see: Britain/Food/Cooking/Roast.
In Britain, a traditional Christmas cake is a rich fruit cake topped with mazipan and covered with white icing sugar. This is eaten at tea-time (in the late afternoon) on any day shortly before or after Christmas. For instructions about how to make such a cake, see: Britain/Food/Cooking/ChristmasCake.
A Christmas pudding is a traditional pudding. Brandy is sometimes pourred on top and set alight. Rum butter (or rum sauce) and ice cream may be served with the pudding. A common alternative pudding is trifle (to see how to make this, see: Britain/Food/Cooking/Trifle).

Would you like to make a Christmas cake like the one shown above?
See the separate page of instructions for details of how to make the fruit cake: Britain/Food/Cooking/FruitCake
The fruit cake should be make several weeks earlier.
This page explains how to finish the cake by adding the marzipan and icing. This should be done a few days before eating the cake.
EQUIPMENT : Pan ; cake brush ; large glass bowl ; medium-sized glass bowl ; seive ; teacup ; tablespoon ; egg whisk ; carving knife ; rolling pin ; 30cm ruler ; flat knife
INGREDIENTS: Ingredient Imperial measure Metric measure 1 ounce is equal to 28.35 grams and 1 pound unit of weight is equal to 16 ounces (453.592 grams).
Ground almonds 24 ounces (24oz = 1.5 lb)
Caster sugar 12 ounces (12oz = 0.75 lb)
Icing sugar 12 ounces (12oz = 0.75 lb)
Almond essence 0.75 teaspoons
Marmalade Enough to cover the top and sides of the cake
Eggs 6 (6 yolks, plus the white of 1.5 eggs)


Heat some marmalade / Spread on the top/sides of the cake / Sieve caster sugar onto the almonds / Take 6 yolks and 1.5 egg whites ... / ... add 0.75 teaspoons of almond essence ...
... and whisk the eggs / Add the eggs to the almonds / Use your hands to knead the mixture
Make into a firm rectangular block / Use knife to cut in half / Cut one half into 4 slices/
Roll out one half to create the top / use a ruler to make it the right size / Place marzipan on top of the cake (it should hang over the sides a bit) / Roll out the slices to make side pieces /
Add each side piece to the cake and join to the top piece / When all 4 sides have been added,
gently use a rolling pin to make it smooth / Leave the cake for 2 hours, then add a little hot water to the icing sugar ... ... and warm the blade of a flat knife in a jug of hot water /
Use the hot knife to spread the icing sugar evenly / As the icing sugar dries, you may want to add some decorations. / When ready to eat the cake, remove decorations and cut slices with a carving knife (wrap the cake in foil to keep it fresh).

Happy Christmas!


The turkey is the symbol for Thanksgiving and Christmas dinner for American families. When the Pilgrim Fathers left Europe to settle in the colonies, they landed in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620 and found their new home there. Persecution in the old continent had been harsh, but neither the long journey on board of the Mayflower to cross the Atlantic Ocean, nor the cold winter helped the new settlers, whose life, at the beginning was more than a struggle.
Grateful to God, inspite of everything, they decided to praise Him on the last Thursday of November, establishing the Thanksgiving festivity. In America the day is celebrated with a rich dinner where stuffed turkey is the leading dish. What do we know about this big, strutting bird? Native to Central America, turkeys were prized in both Mayan and Aztec cultures and were an important source of food. The Spanish conquistadors who arrived in Mexico, quickly realized the value of the animals and shipped them back to Europe, where they were domesticated and raised in Italy, France and England by the 1500s. The Pilgrims brought them to New England, where they were crossed with the local eastern wild turkey population.
With 25% less fat than chicken breast and 75% less fat than lean beef or pork, white turkey meat is a natural choice for the health conscious person. A 3 ounce serving of turkey breast has 120 calories, 1 gram of fat, no saturated fat and 26 grams of protein. Add the skin or choose dark meat and both the calorie and fat count increase. Turkey is a good source of vitamin B and the minerals, iron and zinc. An estimated 95% of American families eat turkey at Thanksgiving while 50% serve it for Christmas dinner. Globally Israelis eat the most turkey: more than 28 pounds per person each year.

Activities. Write the missing parts to each sentence.

a. The Pilgrims Fathers in ......................... left Europe to settle in ..................... because of ..................................
b. When the Pilgrims Fathers reached ..................... they arrived on the coast of ..................... on board of the ............................
c. The last Thursday of .................................. Americans celebrate ............................ with a big dinner where ......................... is the most important dish.
d. Turkey was an important source of ............................. in both ............................... and Aztec ....................................
e. It was the ................................... conquistadors who brought the ..................................... to Europe, where it was raised in Italy, France and ......................
f. The Pilgrims .................................... the European turkeys with the .................................. wild ones of New England.

Activities Let's play with numbers: insert the correct figure.
..……. less is the quantity of fat contained in turkey breast compared to chicken breast.
..……. is the number of calories for a three ounce serving of turkey breast.
..……. pounds is the quantity of turkey each Israeli eats every year.
..…….is the number of grams of protein found in a three ounce serving of turkey breast.
..…….is the total percentage of American families who eat turkey at Thanksgiving.
..…….is the quantity of fat found in a serving of turkey breast.


• Can I offer you another dish to replace it?
• I can put it aside for you if you like!
• There's no problem; please change your table! I'll go and get it for you myself!
• I'm sorry for the delay!

Good service is made up of two things: first of all the product then, secondly, the staff. It is not very difficult to provide a good product, thanks to the chefs' technical skills, their knowledge and the right procedure a meal will be correctly made, but the customer relations are very hard to define because no two customers are alike.
Excellent food is the most important element to satisfy the customer but the best meal made can be completely spoiled if served by uncaring, rude staff. Technical skills and technique are very important but even more important are the caring, sincere attitudes of the people serving the meal.

Feel what they feel

The customers should feel at ease, wanted and welcome. Custom care means essentially caring for customers. These are the golden rules always to follow:

• always put the customers first;
• make them feel good, comfortable and important;
• make them want to return to your restaurant;
• treat all customers alike, as special as you would like to be treated yourself.

Look after them, using body language to put customers at ease;

• always smile as it means you are friendly;
• take care of your appearance and of the premises you work in, keeping your establishment always clean;
• answer the phone within three rings;
• ensure that what you give is what customers want;
• show the customer empathy (feel what they feel).

Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction in a restaurant derives mostly from the way people are treated. Custom care gives you the opportunity of being special. If a customer is rude to a waiter and blames him for a chef's mistake the waiter should remain calm and patient and not be as aggressive as the customer. The waiter's behaviour should always be:

• professional;
• understanding, as customers are paying for the service so a good waiter should understand their needs;
• patient;
• confident;
• welcoming;
• polite.

The first impression

Remember: you never have a second chance to make a first impression! If you give people a positive first impression, you will find much easier to deal with. A welcoming smile and a friendly greeting make people feel at ease.
What you wear and how you look is part of how customers judge your establishment as you are part of its image.
Body language is important as well. It is mainly represented by how you dress, the distance you keep from the others, your movements and gestures, your facial expressions, the eye contact. Body language explains what people really mean, it is the art of seeing what the others are thinking.


Answer the following questions.

1. What are the elements that determine a good service?
2. Why is service so important in a restaurant?
3. What are the qualities a good waiter/waitress should have?
4. How can you define custom care?
5. What should a waiter's behaviour be like?
6. What is body language?


• Decide the order of importance of the golden rules to follow to get custom care
and discuss them with your classmates comparing your choices.
• As for the waiter's behaviour, which of the qualities listed you think are essential?
• Which is the least important? Why?
Tell the qualities you think you have and the qualities you lack to the rest of the class.



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