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Etimologically "text" comes from a metaphorical use of the latin verb "Textere" (Weave), suggesting a sequence of sentences or utterances "Interwoven" structurally to refer to a sequential collection of sentences or utterances which form a unit by reason of their linguistic cohesion and semantic coherence. Other features that make a text a text are:
INTENTIONALITY: having a plan or purpose;
ACCEPTABILITY: having some use for the receiver;
SITUATIONALITY: relevance to the context;
INFORMATIVITY: degrees of new information;
INTERTEXTUALITY: relations with other texts.
These are the criteria for evaluating a text. (Beaugrande and Dressler 1981, Halliday 1978, 1985).
COHESION: concerns the words that connect up the sentences of a text to create a network of relations within it.
COHERENCE: concerns the unity of topic and function of the text.

COHERENCE: For a text to be fully satisfactory to a listener or reader, it needs not only appropriate grammatical links between sentences (cohesion) but it also need the concepts, propositions or events to be related to each other and to be consistent with the overall subject of the text. This semantic and propositional organization is called coherence. It refers to the underlying semantic unity by which the readers perceives that propositions, actions or events fit together.

COHESION: It refers to the grammatical means by which the elements are linked, usually at sentence level. It provides the linguistic threads that furnish unity to the text and that connect phrases; it recalls to mind the material previously encountered, allowing the linking up of different elements.The most common forms of grammatical connection are: 1) Reference by the use of personal promouns, the definite article, comparative forms or substitution by the use of pro-forms. Cohesion is also created by the use of linking words.

In order to effect cohesion different linguistic devices called cohesion mechanisms may be employed. Some cohesion mechanisms consist in the following:
1) lexical repetitions, for example, the re-iteration of the same word, or the use of a verb and its corresponding noun form (to analyse - analysis);
2) the use of keywords, for example, the re-proposition of some particularly important words in the text, that allow the meaning to progress;
3) the use of parallel structures, for example, the repetition of a syntactic structure, with different lexical items, in the same or in a following phrase or sentence (too near... too far; the more... the less...);
4) the use of "pro-forms", that is, parts of speech that substitute others that have preceded them. The most well-known are the pronouns (it, one, ones), but there are also pro-verbs (to do) used to substitute previous full verbs, pro-adverbs (so), pro-adjectives (such), and pro-phrases (this), used to refer to an entire preceding sentence. With regard to the latter it may be noted that the definite article (the) is often used in English where Italian uses questo/quello; certain forms called `retrospective labels', namely, nouns preceded by the determinative article or by the demonstrative adjectives, that allude to and re-propose previous information. These labels can functions as information connectors and so link topics, or else they can shift the focus of information and so effect a transition in the topics.

However, the main category of cohesion mechanisms are the coordinating and subordinating conjunctions, which link up and indicate the relationship between one sentence or clause and another. In what follows some of the relationships and the words that can indicate them are presented:

1) a logical deduction or result: therefore, then, thus, hence, as a consequence, consequently, as a result, accordingly, for this reason, so; a contrast or contraposition: but, however, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the other hand, whereas, while, instead, on the contrary, conversely, in
2) contrast, all the same, in spite of, alternatively, even so, yet, despite; a temporal relationship: at f rst, firstly, subsequently, then, afterwards, thereafter, next, after, before, when, as soon as, since, till until, while, hitherto, as yet, at the same time, concurrently, meanwhile, in the meantime, henceforward, henceforth, from now on, fom now onwards, up to now, to date;
3) a concession: although, though, despite, in spite of, even though, even if, despite the fact that, in spite of the fact that, given that, notwithstanding;
4) a subdivision into different topics or stages: first, second, third, etc., last, firstly, secondly, thirdly, etc., lastly, finally, on the one hand, on the other hand;
5) an exemplification, especially of what has already been said: for example (eg.), for instance, that is (i.e.), namely (viz.), in other words; a clarification or correction: actually, in fact, as a matter offact, rather, a validity or generalization: by and large, as a rule, in general generally, generally speaking, broadly speaking, on the whole, approximately;
6) a cause or reason: as, because, since, in view of the fact that;
7) an addition: and, besides, also, in addition, in addition to, additionally, futhermore, moreover, further;
8) a purpose: to, in order to, so as to;
9) a condition: if, to the extent that, unless, on condition that, as long as, provided that,
10) a certainty: ofcourse, naturally, obviously; a doubt: possibly, perhaps;
11) a conclusion or summing up: in brief, briefly, in short, in conclusion, to summarize, to sum up, to conclude, in summary.



Uniscono, mettendola in evidenza, una frase ad un'altra. They are the following: again (nuovamente), also (anche), and (e), and then (e poi), apart from. ..also (oltre a ... anche), as well as (come pure), besides (inoltre), both ...and (sia ... sia), equally important (altrettanto importante), thurther (oltre), furthermore (inoltre), in addition to (oltre a), indeed (davvero), in fact (infatti), moreover (per di più), too (anche), on top of that (inoltre), what's more (e perdi più).
There are so many ways of improving your English in England. You can speak with native speakers for example. Moreover you can read English newspapers and watch English television, which can be very helpful. (Ci sono molti modi per migliorare il proprio inglese in Inghilterra. Si può parlare con parlanti madrelingua. Inoltre si possono leggere giornali inglesi e guardare la televisione inglese, il che può essere molto d'aiuto.)


Indicano una causa, una ragione, un motivo per cui si compie l'azione o si prova il sentimento espressi dalla proposizione reggente.
as (poiché), because (perché), because of (a causa di), considering/given/seeing that, due to (dovuto a), for per, for + ing (per), for this reason (per questo motivo), in case (qualora), owing to (a causa di), now that (ora che), just in case (nel caso), since (poiché).
Since the air traffic controller were on strike, we couldn't leave for Barcelona yesterday. (Poiché i controllori di volo erano in sciopero, non siamo potuti partire per Barcellona ieri.)
She'll have the letter translated because she doesn't know Spanish. (Ella si farà tradurre la lettera, perché non conosce lo spagnolo.)
I stayed at home because it was very cold outside. (Rimasi a casa perché fuori faceva molto freddo).
They were very late at the meeting because of the traffic jam. (Erano molto in ritardo alla riunione a causa dell'ingorgo stradale.)
The teacher did not get angry because the student was late, but because he made a lot of noise during the lesson. (L'insegnante si adirò, non perché lo studente fosse in ritardo, ma perché faceva molto chiasso durante la lezione.)
He only smokes because his friends do. (Egli fuma solo perché lo fanno i suoi amici.)
As/since/seeing that she knows German well, she'd better introduce the lecturer at the opening of the seminar.
Poiché ella conosce bene il tedesco, sarebbe bene che presentasse il conferenziere all'apertura del convegno.
Since I've never met them, I can't you what they are like.
Poiché non li ho mai incontrarti, non posso dirti come siamo.
I'll do the translation myself, as you don't want to work now.
Farò io la traduzione, visto che adesso non vuoi lavorare.
We decided to stay a little longer at the party as/since it was still early and we were enjoying ourselves.
Decidemmo di rimanere un po' più a lungo alla festa, poiché era ancora presto e ci stavamo divertendo.
Since she is not keen on rock music, why did you give her a Guns'n Roses' record?
Poiché ella non è appassionata di mu¬sica rock, perché le hai regalato un disco dei Guns 'n Roses'
He stayed one more week in New York for he had nowhere else to go.
Egli rimase a new York ancora una settimana, poiché non c'era nessun altro posto dove potesse andare/non aveva
dove andare.


Stabiliscono una comparazione.
as ... as (tanto quanto), as well ... as (bene quanto), as if/as though (come se), likewise (similmente), in the same way (allo stesso modo), similarly (analogamente).
She plays the guitar as well as her brother (does). (Ella suona la chitarra bene quanto suo fratello.)
His computer holds as much information as mine (does). (Il suo computer contiene tante informazioni quanto il mio.)
He studies as hard as his sister.


Indicano una circostanza che potrebbe impedire quanto è espresso nella proposizione reggente o indicano una difficoltà nonostante la quale si compie ciò che la reggente esprime.
as much (anche se), although (sebbene), despite (malgrado), even if (anche se), even though (sebbene), even so (ciononostante), except that (solo che), however (tuttavia), in spite of (malgrado), not that (non che), no matter (non importa), still (tuttavia), though (eppure), whereas (invece), while (benché, mentre), whatever (qualsiasi).
Although she had no specific qualifications, she got that job at the American Embassy. (Sebbene non avesse alcuna specifica qualifica professionale, ella ottenne quel posto all'ambasciata americana.
I used to love listening to music, even though I was very busy with my work. (Mi piaceva ascoltare musica, sebbene fossi molto impegnato col mio lavoro).
Though/although she liked that film, she couldn't watch it.
Sebbene quel film non le piacesse, non potè vederlo.
They said they would come; I don't think they will though.
Dissero che sarebbero venuti; non credo che verranno, tuttavia.
Even though he was very tired, he couldn't sleep all night.
Anche se era molto stanco, non riuscì a dormire/non poté dormire tutta la notte.
It is still quite warm despite the rainstorm.
E ancora abbastanza caldo nonostante la burrasca di pioggia.
In spite of what they had heard about the dangers in the jungle, the explorers went on with their journey.
Nonostante quello che avevano sentito sui pericoli della giungla, gli esploratori proseguirono nel loro viaggio.
She's not feeling well in spite of the fact that she's taken a lot of medicines.
Ella non sta bene, nonostante abbia preso molte medicine.


Indicano la fine dell'avvenimento/dell'azione compiuta nella proposizione reggente e vengono usati per trarre una conclusione.
after all (dopo tutto), all the same (eppure), anyway (tuttavia), anyhow (comunque), as a whole (nel  complesso), at any rate (in ogni modo), at all events (in ogni caso), in any case (in ogni modo), in brief (in breve), in conclusion (concludendo), in the main (tutto sommato), in short (brevemente), however (comunque), nevertheless (nondimeno), on the whole (tutto sommato), to conclude (per concludere), still (comunque sia), though (peraltro), to summarize ( riassumendo), to sum up (riepilogando), yet (tuttavia).
There is fog at Malpensa Airport today. Therefore the plane will be diverted to Fiumicino. (C'è nebbia all'aeroporto Malpensa oggi. Perciò l'aereo sarà dirottato a Fiumicino.)
The champion hadn't trained hard. However he won the race all the same. (Il campione non si era allenato molto. Tuttavia vinse la corsa lo stesso).


Introducono un'opposizione, indicano un fatto in forte contrasto con l'azione che è espressa nella proposizione reggente. Indicano una condizione, senza la quale l'azione espressa nella principale non potrebbe realizzarsi.

assuming (that) (supposto (che), as long as (ammesso che), if (se), in case (that) (in caso (che), on condition that (a condizione che), only if (solo se), provided (that) (sempreché), providing (that) (qualora), suppose (that) (ammesso (che), supposing (concesso), unless (se non), whether or not (in ogni caso/se ...o no), in the event that (nel caso che).
In case the weather is cold, we will take some warm clothes. (Se c'è freddo, porteremo vestiti pesanti).
I can lend you the money, if you let me know when I can have it back. (Posso prestarti il denaro, se mi fai sapere quando potrò riaverlo).
Providing you have a ticket you can get into the football ground. (Qualora tu abbia un biglietto, puoi accedere allo stadio).
Write down the time of your meeting tomorrow, in case you forget it.
Prendi nota del tuo appuntamento di domani, nel caso tu lo dimentichi.
If you don't get to the airport in Urne, you won't be able to check in.
Se non arriverai all'aeroporto in tempo, non potrai fare il check in.
If you get any more news, let us know.
Se hai ulteriori notizie, faccele sapere.
When you get some more news, let us know.
Quando avrai ulteriori notizie, faccele sapere.
I'll be at my aunt's house in case they (should) need to reach me.
Sarò a casa di aria zia, se/nel caso avessero bisogno di raggiungermi.
You'll finish late unless you start work at once.
If you don't start work at once, you'll finish late.
Finirai tardi, se non comincerai / a meno che tu non cominci a lavorare subito.
In case you are in trouble, call me.
Se/nel caso fossi in difficoltà, chiamami.
In the event/In case of rain, the trip will be postponed.
In caso di pioggia, il viaggio sarà rinviato.
Only if there is fog at the airport will the flight be cancelled.
Solo se c'è nebbia all'aeroporto, il volo sarà cancellato.
Providing / provided (that) there are no further questions, the meeting will be adjourned.
Se/ammesso che non ci siano ulteriori domande, la seduta sarà aggiornata.
I don't mind lending you my portable computer on condition that I can have it back by Thursday.
Non mi spiace darti in prestito il mio Computer portatile, purché possa riaverlo per giovedì.
Suppose/Supposing your train is late, will you miss your connection?
Supponendo che il treno sia in ritardo, perderai la tua coincidenza?
You wont't be allowed to smoke in here, unless you leave the window open.
Non ti sarà concesso di fumare qui dentro, a meno che non lasci la finestra aperta.


Introducono un'opposizione, indicano un fatto in forte contrasto con l'azione che è espressa nella proposizione reggente.

although (sebbene), but (ma), compared with (in confronto a), in comparison with (in paragone a), despite (malgrado), else (altrimenti), even though (anche se), granted (concesso), however (tuttavia), in contrast (in contrasto), in spite of (nonostante/malgrado), nevertheless (eppure), on the contrary (al contrario), on the other hand (d'altra parte), otherwise (altrimenti), still (tuttavia), whereas (invece), while (mentre), and yet (eppure), at the same time (allo stesso tempo).
Nuclear physics has always been very easy for her. On the other hand it is very difficult for most people. (La fisica nucleare è stata sempre molto facile per lei. Al contrario essa è molto difficile per la maggior parte della gente).
The novel was wonderful, whereas the film is terrible. (Il romanzo era splendido mentre il film è un fallimento).


Indicano la conseguenza di ciò che è indicato nella proposizione principale, dove si trova quasi sempre un termine correlativo o antecedente alla consecutiva.

accordingly (in conseguenza), as a result (come risultato), consequently  (conseguentemente), in this way (in tal modo), so (quindi), so that (così che), such that (tale da), then (quindi), thereby (perciò), therefore (dunque), thus (di conseguenza).

We were so late that we missed the last train for London. (Eravamo così in ritardo che perdemmo l'ultimo treno per Londra).


Introducono una dichiarazione o una spiegazione.

Actually (in realtà), as a matter of fact (in verità), in fact (infatti), in other words (in altre parole), namely (precisamente), or rather (o piuttosto), to tell the truth (a dire il vero).
"You look happy". "Yes, in fact I am". (Sembri contento. Sì. Infatti lo sono.)
She seems to be rich, but actually she hasn't got any money at all. (Sembra ricca, ma in realtàè non ha affatto denaro.)


Chiariscono quanto già espresso nella proposizione reggente, adducendo esempi.

Especially (particolarmente), for example (per esempio), for istance (ad esempio), for this reason (per questa ragione), incidentally (per inciso), in particular (in particolare), in other words (in altre parole), namely (cioè), I mean ( intendo dire), particularly (in particolare), specifically (precisamente), such as (come), that is (cioè), that is to say (vale a dire).
They always use the bus, especially when they go to the city centre. (Usano sempre l'autobus, specialmente quando vanno in centro).


Collegandosi a quanto espresso nella proposizione reggente, introducono un nuovo argomento.

by the way (a proposito), incidentally (per inciso), as for/as to (quanto a), as far as is concerned (per ciò che concerne), regarding (riguardo a), as regards (per quanto riguarda).

As regards contemporary English literature, my favourite author is David Lodge. (Per quanto riguarda la letteratura inglese contemporanea, il mio autore preferito è David Lodge).


Indicano il modo di attuazione dell'azione espressa nella proposizione reggente.

as (come), as if/as though (come se), just as (proprio come), like (come).
The teacher treats her students as though they were all her children. (L'insegnante tratta i suoi studenti come se fossero tutti suoi figli.
There was a loud noise outside as if it were raining heavily. (C'era molto rumore fuori. come se stesse piovendo forte).


Indicano una circostanza di tempo. Precisano le circostanze temporali di quanto è espresso nella proposizione principale, mettendolo in relazione cronologica con quanto è espresso nella subordinata.

after (poi), after a short time (dopo un po' di tempo), after a while (dopo poco), as (mentre), afterwards (successivamente), as soon as (non appena), at last (alla fine), at present (attualmente), before (prima), immediately (immediatamente), in the meantime (frattanto), later (dopo), lately (ultimamente), meanwhile (nel contempo), no sooner ...than (non appena ... che), now (that) (ora (che), once (una volta), originally (in origine), presently (tra poco/ attualmente), previously (precedentemente), shortly (fra poco), since (da allora), since then (da allora in poi), soon (presto), subsequently (successivamente), temporarily (temporaneamente), then (poi), thereafter (successivamente), till (finché), until (finché non), when (quando), whenever (ogni volta che), while (mentre).

My parents won't move to London until I get my university degree. (I miei genitori non si trasferiranno a Londra, finché non prenderò la laurea.)
He called an ambulance as soon as he realized he had broken his leg. (Chiamò l'ambulanza, non appena si rese conto che si era rotta la gamba.)
He always reads the newspaper before going to work. (Legge sempre il giornale prima di andare al lavoro).


Indicano lo scopo per il quale un'azione si compie o tende a realizzarsi.

to (per), so that (cosicché), so as to (così da), so as not to (non da), for (per), in order to (affinché), in order not to (per non), in order that (così da), for the purpose of (con lo scopo di).

Dr Brown is trying to learn English so that he can read medical journals in that language. (Il Dr. Brown sta cercando di studiare l'inglese per potere leggere le riviste mediche in quella lingua.
He is working very hard to earn enough money to /in order to buy a flat.
Lavora molto per guadagnare abbastanza denaro per comprare un appartamento.
They passed the law, in order to restrict the sale of fire arms.
Approvarono la legge per ridurre la vendita delle armi da fuoco.
I always use my neighbour's lawn mower for cutting/to cut the grass.
Uso sempre la falciatrice del mio vicino per tagliare l'erba.
She studied hard so that she might go to university.
Studiò molto per poter andare all'università.
I want to learn English so that I can go/will be able to go to America.
Voglio imparare l'inglese per poter andare in America.
I took my car to the garage so that it could be serviced.
Portai l'auto al garage perché fosse controllata.
While you were out, some friends of yours called on you.
Mentre eri fuori, alcuni tuoi amici vennero a trovarti.
While they were swimming, someone took their wallets.
Mentre stavano nuotando, qualcuno prese i loro portafogli.
She has to look after the baby until his parents arrive.
Deve aver cura del bimbo, finché arriveranno i suoi genitori.
Before going on holiday, he finished all his work.
Prima di andare in vacanza, finì tutto il suo lavoro.
The college accepted Jane after she had passed her exams.
Il college accettò Jane dopo che ebbe superato gli esami.


Servono a specificare l'ordine in cui determinati avvenimenti o azioni si verificano, oppure servono a stabilire l'ordine di importanza di azioni avvenute o che avverranno.

to begin with (a cominciare con), to start with (a iniziare con), first(ly) (per prima cosa), at first (dapprima), in the first place (in primo luogo), initially (inizialmente), second(ly) (in secondo luogo), third(ly) (in terzo luogo), eventually (infine), finally (alla fine), next (in seguito), in the end (in fondo), last(ly) (per finire).

First finish your homework and then you can go out and play. (Prima finisci il compito e dopo puoi uscire a giocare).


NARRATIVE: the focus is on persons, objects or relations in time. This text type is related on the mental processes of "perception in time".
DESCRIPTIVE: the focus is on people, objects or relations in space. This text type is related to the mental processes of "perception in space".
EXPOSITORY: the focus is on the analysis or synthesis of concepts, the related mental process is that of comprehension.
ARGUMENTATIVE: the focus is on the relations between concepts, where one opinion is upheld and its relation with opposing opinions or solutions investigated. The related mental process is that of "Judging".
INSTRUCTIVE: the focus is on intended future behaviour of the sender or of the receiver. The related mental process is that of "planning".


Scientific or academic writing consists in a prose text directed to the peers of the writers, that are, like the author, specialists or professionals in the topic. It is the kind of writing employed for learned articles and journals, books, scientific conferences and papers and scientific research.
Effective writing for scientific or academic purposes may be said to be characterised by five general criteria: fluency, lucidity, precision, synthesis and objectivity.
FLUENCY: two elements are fundamental for the fluency of a text: coherence and cohesion.
Coherence is the logical link between the phrases, sentences and paragraphs that constitute a text. It concerns the effective distribution of information in the text and it involves the sequence of information.
Cohesion is the implicit or explicit correlation between a phrase and the one following so as to develop organic thought. It sustains the logical development of the information: it provides the linguistic threads that furnish unity to the text and that connect phrases; it recalls to mind the material previously encountered, allowing the linking up of different elements.
LUCIDITY: it can be articulated into five distinct aspects: denomination; characterisation of the discourse; equivalence (what the object or theme of the discourse is like, and to what it is similar or analogous; examination of the topic, all those elements that constitute the discourse topic itself; function or purpose of the discourse, in this context the scope, relevance and rationale of the discourse are evidenced.
PRECISION: the terms selected should be appropriate and they should be univocal in meaning, in that words with different significations should be avoided so as to prevent ambiguity. Finally the words should be endowed with objectivity, that is, they should lack multiple connotations that might impair comprehension.
SYNTHESIS: redundancy must be avoided and the discourse must lack unessential and superfluous information.
OBJECTIVITY: avoid to speak in the first person, use active and passive structures with introductory subjects, for example it, you must always remember the experimental method and research results, as a matter of fact science and technology develop through trials and errors.

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