TN00605A.gif (2512 byte)

daimonew.jpg (8097 byte)









1) What is a kitchen brigade and where can we find it?

Late in the 19 th Century, the ingenious chef Georges Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935) created the modern brigade system while working in London at the Savoy Hotel, even though evidence of brigade-style culinary arrangements can be found in late medieval French and English sources. For getting the utmost efficiency, he organized the kitchen as a strict hierarchical ladder of authorities and functions. This structured team system delegates responsibilities to different individuals that specialize in certain tasks.
At the top of this ladder we find the Head Chef (Chef de cuisine) who coordinates and supervises the kitchen activities, establishes the standards, works out the prices on the menu and so on. He also directs the trainees on work experience. The size of the kitchen brigade usually depends on the type of restaurant and the food that is served. Due to the high costs involved in employing a large staff, many food establishments now expect much more flexibility from a smaller kitchen brigade. Another factor in kitchen staff reduction is the dramatic impact that technology and standardisation have had on the industry process. In any case luxury hotels and first-class restaurants around the globe still employ large brigades because they must provide efficiency and personalised service which are necessary for the standards of their clientele.

2) What are the main roles of a head chef and the duties of an under chef?

The Kitchen chef (Chef de cuisine) is responsible for overall management of kitchen. He supervise staff, create menus and new recipes with the assistance of the restaurant manager, make purchases of raw food items, train apprentices and maintain a sanitary and hygienic environment for the preparation of food. He must have the ability to organise duties and solve any problems that may arise in kitchen daily operations. He is not just a cook, but he is a head cook, which implies a higher level of prestige. Depending on the skill, training and perserverance, a chef can climb the ranks and gain more prestige and responsability. many famous chefs have planned their own progress and worked in some of the most notorious restaurants under some of the most renowned chefs in the world until they, too, became skilled and well-known.
The Head chef is assisted by an under chef (sous-chef de cuisine), who supervises how the food is prepared, portioned and arranged according to the head chef's directions. The Deputy kitchen chef receives orders directly from the chef de cuisine for the management of the kitchen and often represents the chef de cuisine when he or she is not present.Subordinate are the section chefs (chefs de partie); each one is in charge of the preparation of particular food and dishes. All this staff makes up the kitchen brigade, of course the number of the section chefs depends on the size and the class of the restaurant as well as the number of assistants.

3) What does the acronym HACCP mean and what it is used for?

HACCP is the acronym of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point which is a systematic preventive approach to food safety and pharmaceutical safety that addresses physical, chemical, and biological hazards as a means of prevention rather than finished product inspection. HACCP is used in the food industry to identify potential food safety hazards, so that key actions, known as Critical Control Points (CCPs) can be taken to reduce or eliminate the risk of the hazards being realized. The system is used at all stages of food production and preparation processes including packaging, distribution, etc. A critical control point means a point, step or procedure in a food process at which a control measure can be applied, and at which control is essential, to prevent, reduce or eliminate and identified food hazard. This method was applied for the first time in the USA in 1971 by the NASA when the Pillsbury firm accepted to make the food for astronauts and wanted to produce it being very careful with the maximun precautions, in order to assure the safety of the food and the astronauts themselves. This method is nowadays applied everywhere since customer health safety is extremely important, and therefore proper hygiene in the food and beverage industry must be treated with the utmost respect and attention.

4) What are the seven steps to develop a HACCP plan?

In order to develop a good and healthily prevention system in the food processing industry an accurate HACCP plan must be elaborated and written; this document delineates all the procedures to be followed during food preparation in every kitchen. Once the plan has been prepared, it is necessary to validate and verify that the plan works after it is implemented. there are seven principles which are used to develop and implement a HACCP plan. These seven parts are: 1. Analyse Hazards. Everyone who works in the catering industry must be aware of the hazards associated with food and drinks. Hazards can be biological (i.e. microbe), chemical (i.e. pesticides) or physical (i.e. metal fragment) 2. Identify Critical Control Point. These are the stages, or points, in the food production process where hazards should be controlled or eliminated. 3.Establish Preventive Measures with critical limits for each control point. This should be for any cooked food. (i.e. determining the minimun cooking temperature). 4. Establish Procedures. To monitor the critical control points. This could include deciding how cooking time and temperature should be supervised and who is responsible. 5. Establish Corrective Actions. To be taken when monitoring which shows that a critical limit has not been met. 6. Establish Procedures. To verify the system is working properly. 7. Establish an Effective System. In order to record information to document HACCP system.

5) Can you classify what are the main types of restaurants, with their food, clients and price range?

Restaurants are classified on the kind of food, type of clients and price range. Therefore wowadays we can have all the different range of food establishments, since in the 20th Century with the development of commerce, business, technolgy and a huge immigration flow, we can have a large variety of offers, of dishes, of menus and of culinary different traditions. We can have: Fast-Food Restaurants, Coffe Shops and Self-Service Restaurants, here the price range is inexpensive and the customers are mainly clerks, students, teachers, families and so on, the food is often pre-cooked or prepared in advance, here you can find soups, pasta, metas, vegetables, desserts, or pizza, hamburgers, french fries, soft drinks, sandwiches, hot and cold drinks, ice cream, snack items, and so on. Then we can have Hotel Restaurant in which the food, the price and the clients are based on the hotel category, or Ethnic Restaurant where you can find international food such as Chinese, Mexican, Brazilian, Indian, all different kinds of clients and the price range varies from inexpensive to average, finally we can have Speciality Restaurant and Gourmet Restaurant, here you can find speciality cuisine or top quality and elaborate dishes, you can also find all types of clients, from families to VIPs, business clients, celebrities, conference delegates, wealthy people etc. and also the prices varies, from average to expensive and very expensive.

6) What is the origin of the term “Menu”, what are the main types of menus and what features should a good menu have?

The word menu, like much of the terminology of cuisine, is French in origin. It ultimately derives from Latin minutus, something made small; in French it came to be applied to a detailed list or résumé of any kind. So originally menus were just list of food that could be raw or cooked, then in 19th Century individual menus were introduced and the food was divide into courses. Nowadays in restaurants, a menu is a printed brochure or public display on a poster or chalkboard that shows the list of options for a diner to select. A menu may be a la carte -in which guests choose from a list of options - or table d'hôte or carte du jour, in which case a pre-established sequence of courses is served, then nowadays we can have coffe shop menus. In the 2000s, many fast food restaurants switched to digital menus which are displayed on flat-screen LCD televisions. Depending on the restaurant, the menu may display a list of wines and their prices, or this information may be available in a separate brochure called the wine list. Some restaurants may also have separate menus for beer, liquor, and mixed drinks, and for desserts. A good menu should be planned considering a lot of different steps, such as: analyse the potential customer, location of the establishment, the price and cost of food, the staff skill and size, availability of food and reliability of suppliers, time of the year, festivity days, time of the day, number and sequences of courses, nutritional value, last but not least the language. The numbers of courses and the number of dishes may vary depending on the size and type of restaurant, but you must always remember that a menu often influences the customer, so when designing menus, chefs and restaurateurs have to try to appeal to certain marketr segments and they must also create the right atmosphere of the restaurant with decor, furniture and uniforms.

1) Can you describe, synthetically but clearly, what are the main fundamental parts of the man’s visual apparatus?

The eye is the organ of sight; it is composed of the eyeball and other parts. The eyeball is made up of three different membranes: sclera, choroid and the retina, The sclera is a layer of dense white tissue covering all of the eyeball except the cornea, the transparent coat that covers the iris and the pupil and is continuous with the sclera, and the optic nerve at the rear; choroid tissue lies beneath the sclera and the retina, the terminal expansion of the optic nerve, which is a thin layer of light sensitive cells that are classified by shape: rods and cones. The retina has the function of receiving light and turning it into chemical energy. Such chemical energy allows the nerves to bring the message from the eye to the higher regions of the brain. The other parts of the eye are: the muscles, protective structures and lacrimal apparatus, that is eyelids, eyelashes, eyebrows, lacrimal ducts and lacrimal glands. Lacrimal liquid keeps the external surface of the eyeball wet and lubricated.

2) Can you explain what are the most common diseases and disorders of the eye, including the definitions, the main symptoms and their common causes?

The most common diseases of the eye are: black eyes that are bruises of the eyelids and the tissue around the eye; a stye which is an inflammated swelling of the edge of the eyelid and it is caused by bacterial infection; conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva; blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelid margin; herpes Zoster or shingles can affect the skin of the eyelids; glaucoma is due to an increase in ocular tension or to some atrophy of the pupil involving gradual loss of field of vision; keratoconous is a developmental anomaly where the central portion of the cornea becomes progressively thinner as a displaced and increasing protrusion. Complications of diabetes or retinal haemorrhages or degenerations are then the most common causes of permanent blindness and loss of vision acuity. The main eye disorders are blind spots, vision loss, blurred vision and their causes are aging and some pathologies.

3) Can you describe the different kinds of eye specialists and explain which professional should a person consult in the event of a loss of visual acuity?

The professional people who take care of the human eye are opticians, optometrists and opthalmologists. They all work in the same field called “Oculistics”. An opticians usually dispenses glasses and doesn’t diagnose any eye problems. An optometrist is a doctor of optometry specialised in evaluating the need for glasses and decides what type of lens will provide the best vision. An optometrist can also diagnose and treat many eye defects.
Any visual changes caused, for instance, by aging, eye trauma or a generalized illness should never be ignored. An Opthalmologist is a physician specialised in eye disorders and is the appropriate person to consult for diseases or disorders of the eye. In any case one must keep in mind that sometimes an eye problem is part of a general health problem, that’s why general professional help may be appropriate.

4) Can you explain what is the function of the eye and why it is so extremely important for our lives?

The eye is the photoreceptive sense organ through which people acquire knowledge of the world around themselves. Human beings get the information they need through their eyes and this process plays a basic role in the interpretation of the environment. In fact, seeing is also understanding and understanding depends on the way light sensitive receptive cells are connected with the central nervous system which is part of the brain. The ability to perceive objects, colours and distances is acquired by experience. We can compare the eye with a cinema screen because it doesn’t give continuous pictures but successive “stills” at intervals. Among the marvellous properties that the human body has, eyesight is certainly one of the most amazing and important, because without it we would be secluded in a world of darkness and isolation and in any case we should struggle a lot more to go on living in this competitive world.

5) Can you describe what are the most common defects of the eye, their causes and their main remedies?

An eye is said to be emmetrope when it works properly. Sometimes it has defects connected with focusing or diseases connected with the lens, the sensibility of receptors or the shape of the cornea. The most common defects are: nearsightedness or myopia that is due to the eye’s refractive power being too strong or to the eyeball being too long; farsightdness or hypermetropia that is caused by the eye’s refractive power being too weak or by the eyeball being too short; astigmatism means that a person cannot focus on the main meridians at the same time because the cornea doesn’t curve correctly; presbyopia, which is very common in old age, consists of a reduced ability to focus the eye on near objects because of a gradual loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens and finally daltonism that means colour blindness for some colours. Eyeglasses, contact lenses or surgical operations can correct the action of the defective part of the eye.

6) Can you describe what are the different materials used to make frames, and what are the various kind of lenses and contact lenses available on the market?

Spectacles or glasses are made from materials like – wood, leather, bone, horn, tortoiseshell, rubber, plastic, ferrous metals, copper and its alloys, silver, gold, lead, tin, platinum, titanium, etc. The shapes of the frames haven’t changed dramatically over the ages. Manufactured lenses are usually made of glass, but they can also be made by transparent plastic. Lenses are classified by the curvature of the two optical surfaces. We can have concave, biconcave, convex, biconvex, and convex concave lenses. Contact lenses are thin round disks made of plastic, placed on the surface of the eye. They require more care than glasses as they need to be cleaned and stored in a special fluid when not being worn, what's more some people can't wear them at all. Two types of contact lenses are available on the market, hard and soft. With regard to hard ones, they can be scleral (covering the visible part of the eye) and corneal (covering the central part of the eye).

1) Can you describe what are the principal types of dwellings and explain what are the main advantages and disadvantages for the people who live in them?

The principal types of dwellings are: the single family deatched house, it stands alone and is not joined to any other dwelling; the semi-detached or duplex house (Usa): it is joined to another house on one side; the terraced house or town house (Usa): it is a part of a line of houses that are still joined together; the block of flats or condominium (Usa): it is a tall modern building that is divided into flats; the cottage, it is a small house in a village or in the countryside. Cottages are usually old buildings; the bungalow: it has only one floor and no upstairs. Bungalows are usually modern buildings. Then we can have skyscrapers, small and great villas, with large gardens, palaces or mansion house, and finally we can also have some castle of the past, because nowadays they are not built so frequently. Every kind of housing typology has its own advantages and disadvantages and people choose them following their need of privacy and space and their economical possibilities.

2) We can classify towns following their functions, can you make some examples giving also some proper names of them?

A town is a community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. Generally speaking we can have: market town, like Colchester in England, where people can sell their products and where they could also buy things they need; administration centre, whose function is to deal with all the work involved in running a large area, such as a county; holiday resorts, like Rimini in Italy: these are places people visit for their pleasure and relax; university towns, like Oxford or Boston: these are towns where we can find great and prestigious universities that can attract students from all over the world, usually we can find also great and efficient hospitals and scientific research centres; industrial centre: the main function of this type of settlement is the production of goods in factories; port town like Singapore: where goods can be brought into the country or sent to other countries by ship.

3) Natural building, eco and environmental design, alternative energy, these are all characteristics of “Sustainable Architecture”, can you explain what does all this mean?

Sustainable architecture, is a general term that describes environmentally-conscious design techniques in the field of architecture. In the broad context, sustainable architecture seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by enhancing efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space. Most simply, the idea of sustainability, or ecological design, is to ensure that our actions and decisions today do not inhibit the opportunities of future generations. This term can be used to describe an energy and ecologically conscious approach to the design of the built environment. The principles of proper design on the basis of the principles of sustainable architecture may be summed up as follows: 1. Controlling the microclimate; 2. Saving energy; 3. Using renewable energy sources; 4. Using sustainable and recyclable materials; 5 Using water properly; 6. Landscaping.

4) What do we mean by the term “Community” when we talk of houses, buildings, dwellings, people and living facilities?

When we talk of houses, buildings, dwellings, people and living facilities the term community means a group of people living in the same locality and under the same government, who shares the same interests, the same customs and values, and who has some common interests. The term has also other meaning, for instance we can refer to a group viewed as forming a distinct segment of society as the young, the old, the students or o group of professionals or scientists. In order to create a good community spirit the space between the different buildings should be planned very carefully in order to make people live outdoors as well as inside the home. Living well in a community means feeling comfortable in a place and be glad to belong to it. By the term facilities we mean every place or space where we can do something useful and interesting for our living, so a good community will have good houses and many facilities such as sport centers, theatre, schools, pubs, restaurants, hospitals, parks and so on.

5) What did the Industrial Revolution mean for the development of goods and what has to do with the modern Industrial Design world?

The industrial revolution started in Great Britain in the nineteenth century with the invention of the steam engine in 1765 and the constructions of new machinery such as the power loom. Until that time all goods had been made and assembled by hand, and the previous main economy was based on farming, The term industrial design was first used in the U.S.A. in 1919 referring to drawings of industrial objects for advertisements in order to give a new raise in sales after the bad and dramatic period of the Great Depression in 1927 which had cause a strong fall in sales. Industrial Design, art and science involved in the creation of machine-made products. It is concerned with aesthetic appearance as well as with functional efficiency. The term industrial design was originated in 1919 by the American industrial designer Joseph Sinel. Nowadays we can say that through the new technology system we can have a permanent industrial design revolution.

6) What do you know about computer-aided design equipment and about the main stages in design to get a final product starting from an original idea?

A computer can help a designer to work much faster than drawing with conventional equipment. This is called “computer-aided design”, that is CAD. The computer stores the dimensions and can print out the drawings. The computer can be programmed to alter the entire design to accomodate specific changes. With new software designers can create high-resolution 3D models, renderings and photo realistic animations. To get from an initial idea to a finished product there are several design stages. This is often called the design process. As part of this process, a designer uses technical drawings to illustrate and explain ideas. To do this we can make a flow chart which is a summary of the main stages in the design process, such as: the Brief, the Idea, the Research, the Sketches, Perspective drawing, then we can realize a Model, and finally make Technical Drawing and the real product, in the end we can conclude with the finished article evaluation.






Back to Daimon Club English Archive

HH01532A.gif (1581 byte)

Diamante_rosso7253.gif (591 byte)  HOMEPAGE    Diamante_rosso7253.gif (591 byte)  PROMUOVIAMOCI      Diamante_rosso7253.gif (591 byte)  FORUM CLUB   Diamante_rosso7253.gif (591 byte)  EDUCATION

urlaforcwb.gif (5706 byte)

To learn, to practice and to improve the English Language, the Use of Internet and Marketing Strategies join our Facebook Page The World Of English. We can garantee free advices, good tricks, useful cooperation, lot of materials and ideas, powered by www.english-culture.com  If you want to consult our private archive, join us and enrol, a lot of services and material are waiting for you! See you soon, bye, bye.

Daimonecobanner.gif (22169 byte)

     Copyleft © 1997 - 2020  by  WWW.DAIMON.ORG  and  CARL WILLIAM BROWN

colorfrec1.gif (483 byte) DaimonClub colorfrec1.gif (483 byte) DaimonPeople colorfrec1.gif (483 byte) DaimonArts colorfrec1.gif (483 byte) DaimonNews colorfrec1.gif (483 byte) DaimonMagik
colorfrec1.gif (483 byte) DaimonGuide colorfrec1.gif (483 byte) DaimonLibrary colorfrec1.gif (483 byte) C.W. Brown colorfrec1.gif (483 byte) DaimonBans colorfrec1.gif (483 byte) DaimonHumor

dcshobanmov.gif (14871 byte)

Daimbanlink.jpg (8751 byte)

website tracking