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HOW TO USE EYE -DROPS

As an ophthalmologist I prescribe eye drops to my patients. The patient responds by saying how do I put the drops? How many drops do I put? These questions are very relevant to ensure that the disease is effectively treated. Eyes have a very small surface and the administration of drops properly, ensures maximum results. Here is an overview to the proper technique of eye drops instillation How do I use my eye drops?
There are many kinds of eye drops. Follow your doctor’s advice on how much and how often to use your eye drops. Read instructions carefully before using your drops. Store your eye drops at room temperature and away from heat, moisture (wetness), and direct light.
Always ensure that the correct medication is being used for the assigned eye. Do not use the drops after the expiry date. It appears that putting greater number of drops helps in better results, but in reality eye does not have the capacity to hold more than one drop. So, just use one drop at a time to avoid wastage of drug. Putting the drops on white part of eye may seem the most logical option, but actually speaking that is a very small part of eye surface. The maximum area for absorption lies under the eyelids. The drug should percolate under the lids especially upper eyelid. It may be a little difficult if one has to put it by himself. Ideally an attendant should instill it in the patient’s eye. It may be easier to put in the eye drops if you use a mirror or have someone else put it for you. Here are some advices to use eye drops correctly:

• Wash your hands with soap and water. Rinse and dry your hands.
• If the eye drops are cloudy (suspension form), always gently shake the bottle well (with the dropper on) before using them.
• The eye drops must be kept clean. Avoid touching the dropper against the eye or anything else.
• Lie down or tilt your head back. If you are giving the drops to someone else, have them lie down or tilt back their head.
• With your index (pointer) finger, pull the upper lid of your eye to form a pocket.
• Replace the cap or dropper in the medicine bottle right away. Do not rinse or wipe it off.
• Gently close your eyes. Press your index finger against the inside corner of your eye next to your nose for 1 minute. This allows the medicine to start working in the eye.
• Gently wipe away any extra liquid with a tissue. Do not rub your eyes. Wash your
hands to remove any medicine.

If you are using more than one type of eye drop medicine, wait before using the next type. You should wait 5 to 10 minutes before using the next type of eye drops. Adjust the timings of your drops according to schedule. Discard the drops if the color changes from what they were or if it turns cloudy or if they have small bits floating in them If you develop any of these following problems such as excessive eye pain; changes in vision; very bad eye irritation, redness, and watering; rash or hives (raised red areas on your skin); or no change or worsening of symptoms after 3 days of treatment, after putting the drops contact your eye doctor. You must have realized the importance of putting the drops following the correct technique. It is important to use the right drop in the correct eye in the prescribed schedule following a correct technique for best results.

Dr. Mahipal S. Sachdev Chairman and Medical Director, Centre for Sight, New Delhi.

A) Multiple Choice Comprehension.

Which of the following statements is correct in the context of the passage?

(1) About eye-drops patients usually asks their ophthalmologist:

(a) where can I find eye-drops?
(b) how many drops must I put?
(c) are eye drops dangerous for my health?

(2) Eye-drops must not be used:

(a) after the expiry date.
(b) before going out.
(c) when you need them.

(3) If the eye drops are cloudy (suspension form), you must:

(a) put them under the light.
(b) gently shake the bottle well.
(c) put them in the refrigerator.

(4) If you are using more than one type of eye drop medicine:

(a) wait some minutes before using the next type of eye drops.
(b) put them one after the other.
(c) adjust the time of your medication.

5) If there are no change or worsening of symptoms after 3 days of treatment you must:

(a) change the type of eye-drops.
(b) go on putting eye-drops into your eyes.
(c) contact your eye doctor.


Score ……………../10


ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS (MAX TEN LINES)

1) Can you describe, synthetically but clearly, what are the main fundamental parts of the man’s visual apparatus?

2) Can you explain what are the most common diseases and disorders of the eye, including the definitions, the main symptoms and their common causes?

3) Can you describe the different kinds of eye specialists and explain which professional should a person consult in the event of a loss of visual acuity?

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

1) Can you describe, synthetically but clearly, what are the main fundamental parts of the man’s visual apparatus?

The eye is the organ of sight; it is composed of the eyeball and other parts. The eyeball is made up of three different membranes: sclera, choroid and the retina, The sclera is a layer of dense white tissue covering all of the eyeball except the cornea, the transparent coat that covers the iris and the pupil and is continuous with the sclera, and the optic nerve at the rear; choroid tissue lies beneath the sclera and the retina, the terminal expansion of the optic nerve, which is a thin layer of light sensitive cells that are classified by shape: rods and cones. The retina has the function of receiving light and turning it into chemical energy. Such chemical energy allows the nerves to bring the message from the eye to the higher regions of the brain. The other parts of the eye are: the muscles, protective structures and lacrimal apparatus, that is eyelids, eyelashes, eyebrows, lacrimal ducts and lacrimal glands. Lacrimal liquid keeps the external surface of the eyeball wet and lubricated.


2) Can you explain what are the most common diseases and disorders of the eye, including the definitions, the main symptoms and their common causes?

The most common diseases of the eye are: black eyes that are bruises of the eyelids and the tissue around the eye; a stye which is an inflammated swelling of the edge of the eyelid and it is caused by bacterial infection; conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva; blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelid margin; herpes Zoster or shingles can affect the skin of the eyelids; glaucoma is due to an increase in ocular tension or to some atrophy of the pupil involving gradual loss of field of vision; keratoconous is a developmental anomaly where the central portion of the cornea becomes progressively thinner as a displaced and increasing protrusion. Complications of diabetes or retinal haemorrhages or degenerations are then the most common causes of permanent blindness and loss of vision acuity. The main eye disorders are blind spots, vision loss, blurred vision and their causes are aging and some pathologies.


3) Can you describe the different kinds of eye specialists and explain which professional should a person consult in the event of a loss of visual acuity?

The professional people who take care of the human eye are opticians, optometrists and opthalmologists. They all work in the same field called “Oculistics”. An opticians usually dispenses glasses and doesn’t diagnose any eye problems. An optometrist is a doctor of optometry specialised in evaluating the need for glasses and decides what type of lens will provide the best vision. An optometrist can also diagnose and treat many eye defects.
Any visual changes caused, for instance, by aging, eye trauma or a generalized illness should never be ignored. An Opthalmologist is a physician specialised in eye disorders and is the appropriate person to consult for diseases or disorders of the eye. In any case one must keep in mind that sometimes an eye problem is part of a general health problem, that’s why general professional help may be appropriate.


ARTS and CRAFTS

Two critics of the over-decorated, machine-mass-produced objects displayed at the exhibition of 1851 were John Ruskin (February 8, 1819 – January 20, 1900) and William Morris (March 24, 1834 – October 3, 1896). John Ruskin is best known for his work as an art critic and social critic, but is remembered as an author, poet and artist as well. Ruskin's essays on art and architecture were extremely influential in the Victorian and Edwardian eras; William Morris was an English artist, writer, and social activist; he was also a designer of wallpaper and patterned fabrics, a writer of poetry and fiction and a pioneer of the socialist movement in Britain. Ruskin and Morris had been influenced both by Pugin and the Gothic Revivalists as well as by new ideas about the role of the artist.

Revolutionary artists demanded an art in the service of the people, by the people and for the people, supporting the revolution against the priviledged elite who had previously been their patrons. For Morris and Ruskin, Classical architecture was both foreign and the imposition of ruling-class taste on society. Horrified by the effects of the Industrial Revolution, they looked back to the Middle Ages when they felt workers had pride in their craft and were not slaves to the machine.

Morris went further. He proclaimed that if architecture was as important as cultured people said, it should be accessible to everybody and not just to the elite. He wanted architects to turn their attentions away from historic styles and attack the terrible inhuman environment created by the Industrial Revolution. Morris was not against the machine as such, so long as it was used for society’s benefit, and not to enslave the work force. Architecture for the people should draw inspiration not from Classical Italian “palazzo”, but from the people’s own buildings - the simple homes and churches of rural England. In his view these were as worthy of the name "architecture" as the grand monuments. For Morris they were in fact more worthy, being honest, truly English. appropriate to the climate and built of natural, untreated materials.

The Red House near London of 1859 was designed for Morris and his circle of Pre-Raphaelite friends by the young architect Philip Webb (1831-1915) to express all their ideas about a new free architecture inspired by native buildings. Today the Red House looks like a slightly austere, typically Victorian house, but when it was built it caused a sensation. It was thought shocking that "cultured" artists should attempt to copy the "crude" buildings of the lower classes.
Modern Architecture was born. Morris’s ideas were a success with the newly affluent middle class and spread throughout Europe where local and national variations developed in opposition to the Neo-Classical styles. Modern architecture started in the early 1900s and rose to prominence as it sown architectural movement in the 1940s. Modern architecture is a set of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. The Modern style developed as a result of social and political revolutions and it was also driven by technological and engineering developments, and it is true that the availability of new building materials such as iron, steel, and glass drove the invention of new building techniques as part of the Industrial Revolution.

(Adapted from Architecture- for Beginners by L. Hellman


A) Multiple Choice Comprehension.

Which of the following statements is correct in the context of the passage?

(1) The two artists John Ruskin and William Morris:

(a) both of them took part at the exhibition of 1851.
(b) had been influenced both by Pugin and the Gothic Revivalists.
(c) were in favour of the Industrial Revolution.

(2) The English designer William Morris:

(a) created a new school for designers.
(b) advocated a return to the standards of medieval handicrafts.
(c) had great effect on mass production of the time.

(3) Architecture for the people should draw inspiration:

(a) from the famous Italian Palazzi.
(b) from the people’s own buildings.
(c) from the great architecture of the past.

(4) Today the Red House looks like:

(a) a revolutionary building.
(b) a slightly austere, typically Victorian house.
(c) a strange and modern mansion.

5) The Modern Architectural style developed:

(a) as a result of social, political and industrial revolutions.
(b) as a need of simplification and new order.
(c) thanks to the good works of young architects.


Score ……………../10


INDUSTRIAL DESIGN


Before the Industrial Revolution, goods were handmade by artisans, who were usually involved in the whole process of creation, took pride in their work, and often sold their wares directly to the customer. The development in the 18th century of the factory system, with mass production and specialization of labor and the appearance of middlemen, changed the situation. Factory workers tending machines had little involvement with a product and felt no responsibility to the buyer. Factory owners were often chiefly concerned with profits. As a result, although many products, such as cast-iron stoves and building units, were functional, many more were ugly and badly made. Applications of machine-made ornament in hopes of disguising low quality and pleasing a mass market were usually an aesthetic failure.

A few late 19th-century reformers, such as the English designer William Morris and members of the Arts and Crafts movement, protested and advocated a return to the standards of medieval handicrafts. They influenced Art Nouveau style and the Vienna Secession movement, but these attempts at improved design had little effect on mass production at the time. The concept of industrial design did not really take hold until when the German architect Walter Gropius founded the Bauhaus, an artistically revolutionary school of design in Weimar, Germany. The Bauhaus became a center for artists trying to combine aesthetic concerns with new industrial materials and techniques, in what became known as the International style. They generally advocated simplicity of form that was adapted to the object's function.

Industrial Design is concerned with aesthetic appearance as well as with functional efficiency. The success of a design is measured by the profit it yields its manufacturer and the service and pleasure it affords its owner. The term industrial design was originated in 1919 by the American industrial designer Joseph Sinel. Initially, industrial designers dealt exclusively with machine-made consumer products. Eventually, however, the scope of the profession enlarged to include the design of capital goods, such as farm machinery, industrial tools, and transportation equipment, and the planning of exhibitions, commercial buildings and packaging. Under prevailing standards of design, a product should have beauty of line, color, proportion, and texture; high efficiency and safety of operation; convenience or comfort in use; ease of maintenance and repair; durability; and expression of function in terms of form.
The relative importance of any of these standards may vary depending on the object. Thus, line and proportion may be more desirable in a sofa than in a tractor, where durability and easy maintenance may be paramount. A consideration basic to all good design is the factor of realistic cost. Thus, effective industrial design requires, besides artistic ability, combined knowledge of engineering principles and materials, production techniques and cost, and marketing conditions.
Today industrial design has been applied to practically all consumer products, notably to home appliances, such as air conditioners, irons, and washing machines; office equipment, such as typewriters, dictaphones, and duplicating machines; electronic communications equipment, such as radios, television sets, phonographs, and tape recorders; bathroom and lighting fixtures; furniture; hardware and tableware; automobiles; and photographic equipment. Industrial design is applied also to products involved in distribution, such as trucks and automatic vending machines, and to industrial materials and equipment as well.


A) Multiple Choice Comprehension.

Which of the following statements is correct in the context of the passage?

(1) Before the industrial revolution goods were:

(a) handmade by artisans.
(b) produced in factories.
(c) imported from abroad.

(2) The English designer William Morris:

(a) created a new school for designers.
(b) advocated a return to the standards of medieval handicrafts.
(c) had great effect on mass production of the time.

(3) The term industrial design was originated in 1919 by:

(a) the German architect Walter Gropius.
(b) the American industrial designer Joseph Sinel.
(c) the members of the Arts and Crafts movement.

(4) Under prevailing standards of design, a product should have:

(a) beauty of line, proportion, high efficiency and safety of operation.
(b) a very cheap price.
(c) an easy and long usage.

5) Effective industrial design requires:

(a) artistic ability and knowledge of engineering principles and materials.
(b) lack of strategic market conditions and production techniques.
(c) a good and efficient line of distribution.


Score ……………../10


ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS (MAX TEN LINES)

1) Can you describe what are the principal types of dwellings and explain what are the main advantages and disadvantages for the people who live in them?

2) We can classify towns following their functions, can you make some examples giving also some proper names of them?

3) Natural building, eco and environmental design, alternative energy, these are all characteristics of “Sustainable Architecture”, can you explain what does all this mean?

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

1) Can you describe what are the principal types of dwellings and explain what are the main advantages and disadvantages for the people who live in them?

The principal types of dwellings are: the single family deatched house, it stands alone and is not joined to any other dwelling; the semi-detached or duplex house (Usa): it is joined to another house on one side; the terraced house or town house (Usa): it is a part of a line of houses that are still joined together; the block of flats or condominium (Usa): it is a tall modern building that is divided into flats; the cottage, it is a small house in a village or in the countryside. Cottages are usually old buildings; the bungalow: it has only one floor and no upstairs. Bungalows are usually modern buildings. Then we can have skyscrapers, small and great villas, with large gardens, palaces or mansion house, and finally we can also have some castle of the past, because nowadays they are not built so frequently. Every kind of housing typology has its own advantages and disadvantages and people choose them following their need of privacy and space and their economical possibilities.


2) We can classify towns following their functions, can you make some examples giving also some proper names of them?

A town is a community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. Generally speaking we can have: market town, like Colchester in England, where people can sell their products and where they could also buy things they need; administration centre, whose function is to deal with all the work involved in running a large area, such as a county; holiday resorts, like Rimini in Italy: these are places people visit for their pleasure and relax; university towns, like Oxford or Boston: these are towns where we can find great and prestigious universities that can attract students from all over the world, usually we can find also great and efficient hospitals and scientific research centres; industrial centre: the main function of this type of settlement is the production of goods in factories; port town like Singapore: where goods can be brought into the country or sent to other countries by ship.


3) Natural building, eco and environmental design, alternative energy, these are all characteristics of “Sustainable Architecture”, can you explain what does all this mean?

Sustainable architecture, is a general term that describes environmentally-conscious design techniques in the field of architecture. In the broad context, sustainable architecture seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by enhancing efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space. Most simply, the idea of sustainability, or ecological design, is to ensure that our actions and decisions today do not inhibit the opportunities of future generations. This term can be used to describe an energy and ecologically conscious approach to the design of the built environment. The principles of proper design on the basis of the principles of sustainable architecture may be summed up as follows: 1. Controlling the microclimate; 2. Saving energy; 3. Using renewable energy sources; 4. Using sustainable and recyclable materials; 5 Using water properly; 6. Landscaping.


ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS (MAX TEN LINES)

1) What do we mean by the term “Community” when we talk of houses, buildings, dwellings, people and living facilities?

2) What did the Industrial Revolution mean for the development of goods and what has to do with the modern Industrial Design world?

3) What do you know about computer-aided design equipment and about the main stages in design to get a final product starting from an original idea?


1) What do we mean by the term “Community” when we talk of houses, buildings, dwellings, people and living facilities?

When we talk of houses, buildings, dwellings, people and living facilities the term community means a group of people living in the same locality and under the same government, who shares the same interests, the same customs and values, and who has some common interests. The term has also other meaning, for instance we can refer to a group viewed as forming a distinct segment of society as the young, the old, the students or o group of professionals or scientists. In order to create a good community spirit the space between the different buildings should be planned very carefully in order to make people live outdoors as well as inside the home. Living well in a community means feeling comfortable in a place and be glad to belong to it. By the term facilities we mean every place or space where we can do something useful and interesting for our living, so a good community will have good houses and many facilities such as sport centers, theatre, schools, pubs, restaurants, hospitals, parks and so on.


2) What did the Industrial Revolution mean for the development of goods and what has to do with the modern Industrial Design world?

The industrial revolution started in Great Britain in the nineteenth century with the invention of the steam engine in 1765 and the constructions of new machinery such as the power loom. Until that time all goods had been made and assembled by hand, and the previous main economy was based on farming, The term industrial design was first used in the U.S.A. in 1919 referring to drawings of industrial objects for advertisements in order to give a new raise in sales after the bad and dramatic period of the Great Depression in 1927 which had cause a strong fall in sales. Industrial Design, art and science involved in the creation of machine-made products. It is concerned with aesthetic appearance as well as with functional efficiency. The term industrial design was originated in 1919 by the American industrial designer Joseph Sinel. Nowadays we can say that through the new technology system we can have a permanent industrial design revolution.


3) What do you know about computer-aided design equipment and about the main stages in design to get a final product starting from an original idea?

A computer can help a designer to work much faster than drawing with conventional equipment. This is called “computer-aided design”, that is CAD. The computer stores the dimensions and can print out the drawings. The computer can be programmed to alter the entire design to accomodate specific changes. With new software designers can create high-resolution 3D models, renderings and photo realistic animations. To get from an initial idea to a finished product there are several design stages. This is often called the design process. As part of this process, a designer uses technical drawings to illustrate and explain ideas. To do this we can make a flow chart which is a summary of the main stages in the design process, such as: the Brief, the Idea, the Research, the Sketches, Perspective drawing, then we can realize a Model, and finally make Technical Drawing and the real product, in the end we can conclude with the finished article evaluation.

 

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